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«Hosted by the: National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC) ISBN 978-84-695-7786-8 European College of Sport Science: Book of ...»

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Aspvik, N.P.1, Wichstrøm, L.2 Norwegian University of Science and Technology Introduction High socio-economic position (SEP) has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity (PA) in adults, whereas results for children and adolescents are less consistent (Kolle 2009, Kelly et al., 2006). There is also a dearth of studies concerning other parental determinants of child PA. Therefore, the aim of this study was 1) to examine the extent to which how parent’s SEP is related to young children’s PA, 2) identify the mediators of parental SEP, and 3) identify parental characteristics associated with child PA. Methods The participants is a representative sample of 6-year olds living in the city of Trondheim, Norway (N=680). Children wore the ActiGraph accelerometer GT3X for 7 consecutive days to obtain objective assessment of physical activity. PA was measured as mean counts per minute. Data were considered valid if a child had at least 3 d of at least 480 min•d-1 (Kolle 2009). Determinants of PA were collected through questionnaire. Data were subjected to a path analysis using Mplus. Results Parents’ level of education, income and job position (SEP) had no direct significant effect on their child`s PA. Nevertheless, there was an effect of mother`s education on the child`s PA, which was mediated through time spent outdoors with the child. Furthermore, parent self-reported physical activity was not correlated with child PA. Discussion Finding parental SEP to have no direct effect on their 6-year-old children’s PA is in accordance to other studies of young children (Kelly et al. 2006, Riddoch et al. 2007), but in contrast to studies on older children/adolescents (Mo et al. 2005). It may be that parents’ SEP first and foremost is associated with organized physical activities, which is a small contributor to overall PA in young children than in older children. The amount of time parents spend outdoors together with their child strongly influence child PA, a finding corroborated by other findings (Hinkley et al., 2008). This may be due to the fact that children are 2.5 more active when outside than when inside (Cooper et al., 2010). The present findings thus strongly suggest that facilitating parents going outside with their children may increase young children’s PA. References Cooper, A.R. et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 7 (2010).

Hinkley, T. et al. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 34, 435-441 (2008). Kolle E. (2009). Dissertation from the Norwegian school of sport sciences. Oslo. Kelly L.A. et al. (2006). Arch Dis Child, 91(1), 35–38. Riddoch C.J. et al. (2007). Arch Dis Child, 92:963–969. Mo F. et al.

(2005). International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 17(1): 49-56.


Schaffert, N., Mattes, K.

University of Hamburg Introduction Rhythmic information provided audibly as acoustic feedback (AF) supports the timing of movement-execution subliminally (Thaut, 2005) based on the physical characteristics of sounds and movements and their time-based-inseparability. Particularly in high performance technique training, time-critical structures are of crucial importance for the precision of successful executed movements. An online AF-concept for elite athletes has previously been described and empirically investigated during on-water rowing training (WRT) sessions. Assuming beneficial effects for visually-impaired athletes (VIA), AF was implemented into the direct preparation for the Paralympics with the German National Adaptive Rowing Team (ART). The investigation aimed at optimizing the boat run and enhancing athletes’ perception for executing the rowing movement. Methods The coxed mixed four (LTA4+) (N=6) was accompanied during WRTsessions with Sofirow (AF-system). Boat acceleration (aB) was measured (MEMS-acceleration sensor ≥125Hz, 1% accuracy, ±2g), parameter-mapping-based sonified (audibly converted) and provided online to ART and their coach. Statistical analysis considered two different training intensities (TI) at stroke rate (sr) ±19.6 strokes/min. (EXA 1) and ±22 strokes/min. (EXA 2). AF was presented in 500-m-blocks (with and without AF) alternately. Standardized questionnaires examined AF’s functionality and athletes’ perception of it. Results Analysis of variance showed significantly increased mean boat velocities (vB) with AF compared to sections without AF for EXA 1 (F1.8=7.59; p=0.00;

ŋ2p=0.43) and EXA 2 (F1.1=5.92; p=0.38; ŋ2p=0.46). Intra-cyclical analysis revealed qualitative changes within the aB-time trace. AF was perceived from ART as a supportive training-aid, providing important functional information about the boat run independently from vision.

Discussion The results show how AF can affect the mean vB immediately in WRT of ART providing relevant information as well for VIAs by supporting the movement execution and enhancing the feeling for the rowing cycle (rc). Audible presentation of the information from the captured-data, made it directly and intuitively intelligible for ART. The sound reflected the rhythm of rc by providing detailed information of its characteristic phases, yielding to improved crew synchronization. Results reinforced previous findings with elite athletes and were consistent with initial assumptions, showing that AF provides assistance for ART in terms of enhancing their perception for rc more effectively. AF enables access for VIAs to the existing visually-based biomechanical analysis by providing the information audibly. The AFconcept has been integrated into the WRT of ART in preparation for the Paralympics and World Championships. References Thaut, M.H.

(2005). Rhythm, music and the brain: Scientific Foundations and Clinical Applications. New York: Routledge Chapman & Hall.


Hettinga, F., Monden, P.G., van der Woude, L.H.V.

University Medical Center Groningen/ University of Groningen Purpose: How to optimally train the upper body is a particularly relevant question for those in a wheelchair. Though ACSM guidelines can be used as a basis to train the upper body, risks on overuse injuries are present when training at too high intensities too soon. Early in their rehabilitation process, patients with traumatic injuries are usually not familiar with arm propulsion, and care must be taken with prescribing adequate training. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether lower intensity (30%HRR) handcycling training improves physical capacity and whether this is perceived as achievable (low perceived discomfort and effort) in untrained ablebodied women. Methods: 19 able-bodied, untrained healthy females (age 18-23) were included. Nine participants received handcycling

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training (experimental group (EG); 7 weeks, 30% HRR, 30 min per session, three times per week) and 10 received no training (control group (CG)). All subjects performed an incremental pre- and post-test performed on an add-on handbike on a motor driven treadmill.

Peak values for oxygen uptake (VO2), peak power output (PO), ventilation (VE), heart rate (HR), and submaximal values for mechanical efficiency (ME) at 41W, as well as HR and VO2 (at 55W) were assessed during both tests. Local perceived discomfort (LPD) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Results: The TG showed an improvement in POpeak (pre: 81.1 ± 11W; post: 97.4 ± 11.3W) and

HRpeak (pre: 182 ± 11 bpm; post: 188 ± 11 bpm) in comparison with the CG. Also improvements for submaximal ME (pre: 12.7 ± 0.7; post:

16.6 ± 1.7), VO2 (pre: 1148 ± 117 ml/kg/min; post: 955 ± 133 ml/kg/min), VE (pre: 37.6 ± 6.1 l/min; post: 28.3 ± 4.5 l/min) and HR (pre: 163 ± 15 bpm; post: 154 ± 12 bpm) were found. The participants scored on average low on RPE (7.1 ± 0.5; very very light) and LPD (3.4 ± 1.6; no discomfort) during the training sessions. Conclusion: Low intensity handcycling training resulted in an increased POpeak, while LPD and RPE during the training sessions were very low. Also, literature has shown that handcycling is less straining and requires lower peak forces compared to handrim propulsion. Low intensity handcycling training thus seems to improve physical capacity with a relatively low risk on shoulder injuries. However, VO2peak did not increase and fitness thus did not seem to improve. Lastly, at submaximal level, ME increased after low intensity training. This allows greater mobility and possibilities in ‘daily life’ sub-maximal exercise intensities. It thus seems that, in particular early in the rehabilitation process, when risks on injuries are high, low intensity handcycling training provides interesting opportunities in pursuing a healthy lifestyle.



Saüch, G., Castañer, M., Prat, Q., Hileno, R., Camerino, O.

INEFC-University of Lleida Introduction People in Western society are living longer and this raises the need to reconsider the content of exercise programmes for the elderly. With the aim of obtaining information that would help optimize these programmes we used a mixed methods design to analyse heart rate intensity and patterns of motor behaviour, simultaneously and in context. Methods Eight female participants (age: 81±4.02 years) were studied over a period of 50 min each. Using the mixed methods design known as Multilevel Triangulation (Camerino et al.,

2012) we collected and triangulated: a) quantitative data obtained from heart rate monitors (Polar RS800), tabulated according to the Classification of Exercise Intensity of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM, 2011); b) qualitative data on patterns of motor behaviour, organized according to the category system set out in OSMOS (Castañer et al., 2009) and sequentialized (into T-patterns) by means of THEME 6.0; and c) qualitative data derived from a content analysis (using NVIVO 0.8) of participants’ answers to open-ended questions about their levels of fatigue. Results Regarding the relationship between motor skills (locomotion [LOC], stability [ST]) and HR categories (light [LIG], moderate/vigorous [MV]) the chi-squared test yielded a value of 1.68 (p0.05). In the analysis of adjusted residuals there were no Z scores 1.96 (p0.05), although values close to this (Z=1.3, p0.05) were detected between LOC and LIG, and between ST and MV. Analysis of the T-patterns detected by THEME showed that stability skills are used when HR shifts to MV, after having made use of locomotion skills. The qualitative data derived from the open-ended questions corroborated these findings. Discussion Heart rate intensity was directly related to the pattern of motor behaviour, namely locomotion, manipulation and stability (Castañer et al., 2009), as well as to the capacities of resistance, strength and speed. The study confirms the utility of mixed methods designs for evaluating, in context, the heart rate intensities associated both with specific patterns of motor behaviour and with perceived fatigue among participants. We believe that research of this kind can help to ensure that exercise programmes for the elderly are physiologically tailored to the heart rate intensities recommended by the ACSM. References ACSM (2011). Med Sci Sports Exerc, 43(7), 1334-1359. Camerino O, Castañer

M, Anguera MT (2012). Mixed Methods Research in the Movement Sciences. Cases in Sport, Physical Education and Dance. UK:

Routledge. Castañer M, Torrents C, Anguera MT, Dinušová M, Jonsson GK (2009). Behav Res Methods. 41(3), 857-867.



Nightingale, T.E., Walhin, J.P., Thompson, D., Bilzon, J.L.J.

University of Bath Introduction Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) is inherently difficult to measure in free-living conditions, particularly in populations where movements and movement patterns are atypical, such as manual wheelchair users. The aim of this study was to (i) assess the mechanical reliability of the Actigraph GT3x+ (Actigraph, USA) accelerometer and (ii) assess the influence of its anatomical placement on PAEE estimation in manual wheelchair users. Methods Mechanical reliability: Ten GT3x+ units were attached to a multi-axis shaker table.

A testing schedule which comprised various acceleration conditions to replicate a range of physiological movements was conducted along each of the three measurement axes. Human validity: Eleven manual wheelchair users (mean ± SD: 34 ± 11 years, time since injury: 13 ± 15 years, body fat: 25 ± 13 %) completed five activities; deskwork and wheelchair propulsion (2, 4, 6, 8 km.hr-1). A GT3x+ accelerometer was worn on the right wrist, upper arm and waist. The relationships between physical activity counts (PAC) from each unit and metabolic rate (Cosmed K4b2, Italy) were subsequently assessed and bias ± 95 % limits of agreement (LoA) calculated. Results Mechanical reliability: CV ranged from 0.2 to 4.7 % (intra-unit) and 0.9 to 5.2 % (inter-unit) in all axes. ICCs were 1.0 for all stages in each axis. The absolute bias ± 95 % LoA values within units were 0.4 ± 4.1 counts.5 s-1, -0.1 ± 4.6 counts.5 s-1 and 0.3 ± 4.2 counts.5 s-1 for x, y and z axes respectively. Human validity: PAC at each anatomical location were significantly (p.01) associated with metabolic rate (wrist; r =.96, upper arm; r =.91, waist; r = 0.73). The SEE for each correlation was 2.88, 4.15, and 6.89 KJ.min-1 for wrist, upper arm and waist respectively. Using the generated regression equations the absolute bias ± 95 % LoA values were 0.46 ± 5.71 kJ.min-1, 0.33 ± 8.18 kJ.min-1 and -0.03 ± 13.56 kJ.min-1 for wrist, upper arm and waist respectively. Discussion The findings of the mechanical reliability testing demonstrate that the Actigraph GT3x+ is a reliable tool for assessing accelerations within the physiological range of interest. Of the three anatomical locations considered, a wrist-mounted accelerometer provides the most valid prediction of PAEE in manual wheelchair users. Future studies should assess the validity of such devices and anatomical positions for predicting PAEE during more complex representative daily activities performed by manual wheelchair users.

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