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German Sport University Cologne In human locomotion like running the ground shoe foot interaction is frequently used to distinguish between running styles. Runner’s striking behavior has been shown to affect the mechanical loading conditions of the lower extremity during the braking phase of stance Barefoot running leads to a more plantar flexed striking behavior of the, which could be a strategy to reduce local pressures underneath the heel during the initial contact phase or to decrease the tibia and knee joint acceleration during initial stance. Changing the hardness of the surface or the midsole of a shoe affects the contact area as well as the time during which the impact energy is absorbed. Consequently, running on soft surfaces like natural grass has been shown to reduce peak plantar pressures underneath the foot, the peak impact force or at least the rate of impact force. A soft running surface might therefore allow for the maintenance of a more dorsi-flexed foot strike pattern in the absence of soft cushioning materials underneath the heel. Most published studies on barefoot and shod running or on running biomechanics in general did not alter the material properties of the running surface and therefore fail to clarify possible
interactions between footwear and surface conditions. Competitive as well as recreational running is regularly performed on surfaces with different mechanical properties. A recent study investigated the effects of running shoes and surface conditions on the striking behavior and lower leg biomechanics in the sagittal and frontal planes of movement of male and female runners. Gender effects occurred mainly in shank and thigh frontal plane orientation and knee flexion angle. On harder surfaces and when running barefoot, subjects tended to land with a more plantar flexed foot position and ankle angle as well as a more vertical shank alignment. Different adaptation strategies to running surfaces were observed between barefoot and shod conditions. It seems that touchdown behavior is adapted to compensate for the force distributing and energy absorption potentials of distinct surface by shoe combinations. If the combined compliance of the shoe plus surface combination exceeds a certain level, touchdown kinematics seem to be adapted to improve joint stability during early stance. The surface shoe foot strongly interacts with the biomechanics of the muscular skeletal system at least with that of the lower extremity in human locomotion. Running habits (barefoot or shod) might play a role in this interaction but it is not finally understood 10:20 - 11:50 Invited symposia IS-SH06 Ethico-legal perspectives on justice in sport
PRIVACY VS. ANTIDOPING POLICIESNicolás, P.
University of País Vasco Introduction The antidoping controls necessarily include medical analyzes and obtaining data concerning the health. It is needed also the availability of the athletes to undergo screening. The legal framework for the collection and use of personal data in Spain is primarily established in the Organic Law 15/1999, which states that data collection should be proportional to the legitimate aim pursued. It also establishes that health data may only be collected and processed and transferred when for reasons of general interest is required by a law or when the subject gives her express consent. Methods To examine the legal basis and legitimacy of the establishment of antidoping controls and the mechanisms that have been articulated in this context (Law 7/2006 of 21 November on the protection of health and the fight against doping in sport and other development regulations), it is necessary to analyse whether these measures are proportionate in relation to the legitimate aims pursued. This test requires a balancing of the interests and rights involved: privacy and data protection, health protection and interest relating to the sport in general. Another issue directly related to this, concerns the fariness of the publication of the results of the analysis, either by public institutions or media. Discussion and results Spanish legislation corresponds to international standards. The incorporation of these measures into our legislation has raised litigation in court and doctrinal discussion as well as a critical report of the General Attorney. The legislation is in the process of reform and the trend to increase control mechanisms does not appear to decrease. References Agencia Mundial Antidopaje. Código Mundial Antidopaje. 2009. Atienza, E.
Control Antidoping y derecho a la intimidad, dos realidades difíciles de conjugar. Iusport. 2013. Consejo Fiscal. Informe sobre Anteproyecto de Ley Orgánica por la que se modifica la Ley Orgánica 7/2006, de 21 de noviembre, de protección de la salud y de lucha contra el dopaje, y de Anteproyecto de Ley, por la que se modifica la ley orgánica 7/2006, de 21 de noviembre, de protección de la salud y de lucha contra el dopaje. Rodríguez García, J. El deber de localización de los deportistas y su derecho a la intimidad: especial
referencia al consentimiento. Revista jurídica de deporte y entretenimiento: deportes, juegos de azar, entretenimiento y música. 2011, (31):
181-248 UNESCO. Convención internacional contra el Dopaje en el Deporte. París, 19 de octubre de 2005 VV.AA. Comentarios a la Ley antidopaje en el deporte. Aranzadi. 2007. Ley Orgánica 7/2006, de 21 de noviembre, de protección de la salud y de lucha contra el dopaje en el deporte. Proposición de Ley Orgánica por la que se modifica la Ley Orgánica 7/2006, de 21 de noviembre, de Protección de la Salud y de Lucha contra el Dopaje en el Deporte. (122/000007).
VALUE PLURALISM IN SPORTS: JUSTICE AND CHEATINGTamburrini, C.
University of Stockholm Sports games are regulated by a number of rules which determine how the game should be played. Some of them are constitutive, in the sense that they create the game. Others are merely regulatory, as they tell sport practitioners which actions are permitted and which actions are to be abstained from when performing the game. Particularly regulatory rules are open to different interpretations, depending on how the game is understood by different actors (sport practitioners, sport officials, sports experts and journalists, the public, to cite some of them). On grounds of this, it is often affirmed that, besides the formally written rules of a game, there is “an unofficial systems of conventions which determines how the official rules of the game will be applied in various concrete circumstances”. This informal system of conventions is usually called “the ethos of the game”. (D’Agostino, Fred, “The Ethos of the Game”, 1981). In this presentation, I will first argue that, besides this traditional ethos of the game, there is a wider normative framework that evolves directly from how the game is practiced by sportspersons. This enlarged sport ethos rests on a notion of value pluralism and is highly receptive to the influence of ethical relativism, at least in one of its forms. Finally, I will raise the question of the normative relevance to be given to this enlarged, practitioners-based sport ethos.
LUCK EGALITARIANISM, JUSTICE AND SPORTPérez Triviño, J.L.
Pompeu Fabra University If we used the rawlsian strategy to propose the principles of justice in a well-ordered society, in other words, the original position, to design the principles that must govern sport practices, which would be these? My purpose here is not so ambitious. I will reduce my goal to examine which should be the paper of the luck in sport. As it is well known, Rawls was concerned also by luck with his known appeal
to the natural lottery and the idea that some factors of social disadvantage must be socially compensated. Other authors have tried to explain and offer a list of factors that prevent that in the sport win always the best athlete. Dixon pointed auto several of these circumstances: the refereeing errors, cheating, gamesmanship, the inferior performance by superior athletes and the bad luck. My aim will be to analyse the paper that should be to attributed to the luck in sport unlike the social scheme and which luck factors have to be compensated in an athletic competition.
10:20 - 11:50 Invited symposia IS-SH02 Body projects and the embodiment of gender and ethnicity
CONTESTED BODIES – CONFLICTS AND CONTROVERSIES ABOUT DRESS CODES AT INTERNATIONAL SPORT COMPETITIONSPfister, G.
University of Copenhagen In spring 2011, the International Badminton Federation decided to make skirts mandatory for female players, obviously, to increase the glamour quotient in this sport and to attract a larger audience. Bikinis in beach volleyball and increasingly “stunning” attire in tennis seemed to have enhanced the public interest in these sports. At the same time, sport organizations from Islamic countries demand that Muslim women be allowed to compete in all sports and events wearing the hijab. A third party in the struggle about the dress code is the Atlanta Plus Committee and its supporters who addressed the IOC in 2010 with the demand to exclude NOCs who force female athletes to wear “restrictive garments” such as the hijab. In this paper I will explore the arguments and reasons as well as the political and ideological background of the various initiatives and groups involved in the “battle” about the bodies of female athletes. In addition, I will approach the dress issue from the perspectives of various groups of women. Drawing on constructivist concepts of gender, religion and ideology, sport and taste, I will try to unpack the politics and policies of the dress codes as well as the open and hidden meanings of the body presentations. Do not insert authors here
THE TRANSNATIONAL FLOW OF BODY CULTURES: THE GLOBALIZATION OF MODERN YOGA IN THE 20TH CENTURY.Vertinsky, P.
University of British Columbia Modern transnational yoga has increasingly became understood as a predominantly Anglophone phenomenon in spite of its Asian inspirations - one of the first and most successful products of globalization. Now one of the fastest growing health and fitness activities, said to be ‘oxygen for the modern soul,’ modern yoga can be found everywhere among the affluent, educated and especially women.
This paper will discuss how interest in yoga thought and practices began to grow in the late 19th century as the result of an ongoing dialogical exchange between modern body culture techniques originating in the West and the various discourses of modern Hindu yoga that circulated throughout the nineteenth century. It will focus especially upon the feminization of hatha yoga as it was reframed and incorporated into female physical culture practices in the West during the 20th century and examine claims about some of the risks and benefits which have flowed from this classic example of Hobsbawm’s ‘invention of traditions.’ As Anne Harrington reminds us in relation to the history of mind-body medicine, eastward journeys rarely take us into another world for they are located within colonial cultural discourses and narratives that have already established themselves as familiar. They simply take us deeper into ourselves.
CHALLENGING THE NORM? PHYSICAL IMPAIRMENT, ACTIVE AGING AND SPORTING BODIESKnoppers, A., Van Amsterdam, N.
University of Utrecht The purpose of this paper is to explore how discursive practices of active aging and physical disability overlap and (re)produce gendered hierarchies in the valuing of athletic and physically active bodies. More than 100 years ago the bodies of women, the ’elderly’ and those with visible physical impairments were considered to be unsuited for participation in elite sport. The normal sporting body was young abled and male. Currently, the increasing attention paid to and visibility of elite women’s sport and events such as the Paralympics and Senior Games suggest that the acceptance of athletic bodies has expanded to include a diversity of bodies beyond that of the young abled male. Such global events have expanded opportunities for individual athletes to participate in sport and in that sense can be seen as emancipatory and as challenging existing hierarchies in valued bodies. Yet normative sport discourses often implicitly represent both old age and physical impairment in negative terms. We argue that dominant discursive practices of active ageing and physical disability have similar subtexts related to gender, ability, health, sport and meritocracy. Together these subtexts (re)produce body hierarchies that continue to normalize the sporting body towards that of the young abled male.
10:20 - 11:50 Oral presentations OP-PM02 Adapted Physical Activity [AP] 2