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Introduction Circulating progenitor cells (CPC) are bone marrow-derived cells that are mobilized to the circulation and incorporated in the sites of injury. Exercise is a powerful mediator of hematopoiesis but the CPC increases and their schedule after different types of exercise are contradictory. Moreover, there is a lack of studies comparing different training methods, including resistance, in the possible changes in CPC concentrations. Methods Forty-three healthy male subjects physically active, (age 21.2 ± 2.4 years) were randomly distributed in four different training groups: aerobic (AET), resistance (RET), mixed (MIX) and control (CON). They were trained for six weeks except the control group. Peripheral blood samples were collected by puncture of an antecubital vein and CD34+ CPC analysed according to a previously described method (Viscor G), in different days: pre-training, post-training and three weeks after finishing the training period.
Results No significant CPC differences were observed between the different training groups, but with a tendency to higher values post training and a big dispersion intra and intergroups.. We detected an inverse lineal relationship between the % of post-training CPC changes and the pre-training values (R=0.826, F=189.8, p0.001). In the CPC values 3 weeks after training this inverse relationship was maintained but at lower extent (R=0.566, F=52.2, p0.001). Discussion The different training methods applied in this study do not seem to be able to increase the CPC concentration in a stable form. The way differences in individual responses seem to influence the global training response. References Asahara T et al (1997) Science 275:964-967 Koutroumpi Met al (2012) World J Cardiol 4:312-326 Viscor G et al (2009) J Transl Med. Oct 29; 7:91
AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD RESPONSES TO A TRAINING PERIOD WITH DIFFERENT STIMULUSAlamo, J.M.1, Niño, O.1, Aragonés, D.2, Balagué, N.2, Cos, F.2, Guillamó, E.1,2, Ventura, J.L.1, Javierre, C.1 University of Barcelona Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the aerobic respiratory threshold (T1) and in the anaerobic respiratory threshold (T2) after different training types: aerobic (AET), resistance (RET) and both (MIX). Methods Forty-three healthy subjects physically active, (age 21.2 ± 2.4 years) were distributed in four randomized training groups: AET, RET, MIX and CON and they were trained during six weeks except the CON (control group). Three evaluations were conducted: pre-training, post-training and three weeks after finishing the training period, and included workload and metabolic-respiratory data in a graded exercise test until exhaustion. Results. A/ With regard to the evolution of T1 we observed changes in the MIX group between the 1st and the 2nd evaluation of workload (1st: 84.1 ±
36.8 W; 2nd: 127.8 ± 29.4 W, p=0.024) and between the 1st and the 2nd evaluation of % of the maximal workload (1st: 30.7 ± 12.1; 2nd:
43.2 ± 11.1 %W, p=0.048). In addition, in the AET group % of maximal workload showed statistical differences between the 2nd and the 3rd evaluation (2nd: 32.8 ± 9.2; 3rd: 38.6 ± 6.6 %W, p=0.049). B/ Moreover, when the evolution of T2 was analyzed, changes in the MIX group respect to: the workload between the 1st and the 2nd evaluation (1st: 221.2 ± 34.2 W; 2nd: 255.1 ± 20.9 W, p=0.002), the 1st and the 3rd evaluation (3rd: 257.9 ± 19.2 W, p=0.002) and % VO2max between the 2nd and the 3rd evaluations (2nd: 78.8 ± 10.6; 3rd: 86.7 ± 4.07, p=0.04) were found. The AET group showed differences in %VO2max between the 2nd and the 3rd evaluation (2nd: 79.1 ± 6.4; 3rd:
86.3 ± 5.6, p=0.002). In the RET group the changes appeared at workload between the 1st and the 2nd evaluation (1st: 211.2 ± 25.8 2nd:
229.2 ± 23.6 W, p=0.042) and between the 1st and the 3rd evaluation (3rd: 228.2 ± 26.4 W, p=0.023). CON group showed changes in
the workload between the 1st and the 3rd evaluation (1st: 251.9 ± 36.4 W; 3rd : 273.9 ± 36.0 W, p=0.001) and the 2nd and the 3rd (2nd:
252.0 ± 36.4 W, p=0.006), % workload between the 1st and the 3rd (1st: 81.5 ± 3.8 ; 3rd: 89.9 ± 3.2, p=0.002), between the 2nd and the 3rd (2nd: 83.1 ± 5.5 ; 3rd: 89.9 ± 3.2, p=0.003), %VO2max between the 1st and the 2nd evaluation (1st: 80.4 ± 8.1; 2nd: 89.2 ± 6.9, p=0.004) and between the 1st and the 3rd (3rd: 91.0 ± 4.7, p=0.001). Discussion MIX training, under the conditions of the present study, seems to produce greater and more lasting improvements in both thresholds. References Dal Maso F, Longcamp M, Amarantini D.(2012) Exp Brain Res 220:287-295. Wasserman K, Mc Ilroy MB (1964) Am J Cardiol 14:844-852.
MONITORING WORKLOAD DURING A TRAINING PROGRAM IN A WEIGHT LOSS INTERVENTION IN BREAST CANCERSURVIVORS.
Guillamó, E.1,2, Travier, N.3, Oviedo, G.4, Roca, A.1, Delicado, M.C.1, Niño, O.1, Cos, F.2, Agudo, A.3, Barbany, J.R.1, Javierre, C.1 University of Barcelona Introduction Exercise intensity is an important parameter in exercise programs. As part of a study, in breast cancer (BC) survivors, to promote weight loss through a dietary intervention and a physical exercise program, we propose to design a test to control and adjust the training intensity of each participant along the intervention. Methods Forty two BC survivors (women aged 54.8±8.6 years) overweight and obese, started an intervention with an exercise program, including 5 weekly sessions for 12 weeks (two sessions in the laboratory and the other three at the participant’s home). Aerobic exercise combined with strength training were the main components of this physical exercise program. Aerobic exercise was completed cycling and doing aerobics choreography sessions. The test to control the intensity was carried out cycling. The test was integrated into the training sessions. It consisted of two cycles of 8 and 6 minutes, cycling at an intensity of 13-14 on a rate of perceived exertion. Heart rate (HR) and workload were registered every two minutes. Values of the last four minutes of the second cycle of exercise were used to calculate the participant’s capacity in each test. This result was assimilated to 70% of the maximum capacity1 of the participant and used to schedule work intensities for each participant during the next sessions. This test was performed at weeks 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11. Results An increase in power output achieved was observed in the 5 tests (week 3: 80.1 ± 24.5 W, week 5: 84.0 ± 27.4 W, week 7: 88.0 ± 28.3 W, week 9: 90.5 ± 31.5 W and week 11: 93.9 ± 30.2 W), being different from those observed at the beginning from week 7, 9 and 11 (p 0.05). Changes in HR were not monitored during the physical test. Discussion The test carried out two series of 8 and 6 minutes cycling at an intensity chosen by the subject, later introduced as training load in the program.
This test seems to be a good method to assess workloads required during the exercise program. The HR for these workloads could be a parameter to complete the information about the best power output requested during the physical program. Future research is needed to confirm these results. Reference 1. Franklin, B., & Swain, D. (2003). New insights on the threshold intensity for improving cardiorespiratory fitness. Preventive Cardiology, 6(3), 118.
10:20 - 11:50 Invited symposia IS-PM15 Can exercise damage the heart *
CARDIAC SCREENING BEFORE MARATHON?Scherr, J.
Technical University Munich It is well known that participation in regular, moderate-intensity exercise reduces mortality and cardiovascular and malignomaassociated morbidity. However, it is still an object of debate whether intense and prolonged exercise (such as marathon running and the associated training) results in an in- or decrease in mortality because the reports of marathon-related sudden cardiac death, especially in the lay press, are increasing. Therefore, in the last few years, a discussion has been raised whether pre-marathon participation screening should be performed, with some even arguing that they be mandatory. Furthermore, if screening is to be performed, the extent of screening is currently being discussed controversially, even within expert cardiovascular societies. The World Health Organization (WHO) published several criteria in 1968 which have to be met to justify a pre-participation screening procedure. In accordance to these criteria, the currently discussed pros and cons regarding several potential examination modalities used for pre-participation screening of marathon runners (resting-ECG, exercise testing, echocardiography) are presented with a special focus on different subgroups.
DOES MARATHON INCREASE INCIDENCE OF SUDDEN DEATH?Halle, M.
Technical University Munich Numbers of participants in city marathons have continuously increased over the last decades. This is observed for males and females alike. Interestingly the age 40 years of the participants has also steadily increased from 26% in 1980 to 46% in 2010. This has a substantial impact on the the number (7-fold increase) and cause of sudden cardiac deaths as coronary heart disease is becoming significantly more prevalent and a major cause of exercise induced death beyond the age of 35 years. These fatal events occur mostly during the end of the race beyond mile 22nd. Mechanisms and underlying causes for these events differ substantially. Genetic disease including myo
cardial hypertrophy, conduction problems, myocarditis of coronary heart disease are mostly found in autopsies. Therefore, understanding the short-term and long-term effects of long-distance endurance sports is mandatory and should lead to a more sofisticated medical screening in leisure time and elite athletes alike in order to reduce the incidence of sudden cardia deaths during marathon running.
EVIDENCE FOR CARDIAC STRAIN DURING A MARATHONGeorge, K.
Liverpool John Moores University Over the last three decades a range studies have assessed two linked and controversial concepts; (1) exercise-induced cardiac fatigue and, (2) exercise-induced cardiac damage. Whilst these topics were initially developed and assessed in an academic setting there has now been cross-over into the lay press. This has raised substantial awareness and debate within the endurance sports world as to the safety of marathon training and competition for all participants. Both concepts have been studied in a range of endurance-based activities but a significant amount of evidence has been derived from “marathon studies”. Marathon racing is exceptionally popular with the number of participants worldwide still growing. One interesting facet of marathon races is that the participants range from the elite to the “weekend warriors” often running for charity. Consequently the marathon (and other similar events) provides a relatively heterogeneous “laboratory” to study the impact of acute endurance exercise on the heart. The structure of this review covers a range of topics related to marathon racing studies of cardiac fatigue and damage. Firstly, we will define exercise-induced cardiac fatigue and damage and detail a number of technical approaches to assess both concepts. We will then assess the available evidence for cardiac fatigue and damage associated with marathon performance. This evidence base with be critically analyzed in relation to the limitations of field-based marathon studies. The impact of personal characteristics such as age and training status will also be examined. Finally, we will look at ongoing technical developments and where this field will progress to in the future. As a consequence of this broad debate we will attempt to draw some conclusions as to the clinical relevance of any change in cardiac function or biomarkers observed after running a marathon.
IMMUNONUTRITION SUPPORT FOR ATHLETES: BENEFIT OR HAZARDS?Nieman, D.
Appalachian State University, North Carolina Prolonged and intensive exercise has transient but significant, wide ranging effects on the immune system. The exercise-induced immune perturbations and associated physiologic stress are associated with an elevated risk of acute respiratory infections (ARI), especially during the 1-2 week period following competitive endurance races. Immunonutrition support for athletes is an active area of research endeavor, and this lecture will summarize the efficacy of various nutritional products in countering exercise-induced immune dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The value of using immunonutrition support for athletes has been questioned because blocking the transient oxidative stress, inflammation, and elevations in stress hormones following heavy exertion potentially interferes with important signaling mechanisms for training adaptations. Another viewpoint is that even the most effective immunonutrition support systems only partially block exercise-induced physiologic stress indicators, analogous to the beneficial use of ice packs to reduce swelling following mild injuries. In the end, the value of immunonutrition support for athletes during periods of heavy exertion and competitive races will be evaluated by whether or not the athlete has improved recovery, lowered ARI, reduced muscle damage and soreness, and enhanced overall athletic performance.
10:20 - 11:50 Invited symposia IS-PM04 Mitochondrial structural organization, dynamics and function
SKELETAL MUSCLE MITOCHONDRIAL NETWORKS – STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION AND ADAPTATIONS TO PHYSICAL
ACTIVITY / INACTIVITYDahl, R., Larsen, S., Helge, J.W., Dela, F., Prats, C.
The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen The mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that continuously adjust to cellular demands. The morphology of a mitochondrion is not always the classically accepted ellipsoid shape. In most cells, mitochondria are form by highly interconnected tubular mitochondrion.