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«Hosted by the: National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC) ISBN 978-84-695-7786-8 European College of Sport Science: Book of ...»

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How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1987 (3) Mc Fee G.: Knowledge, Ethics and Truth in Sports Research, An Epistemology of Sport, Routledge, 2009. (4) McNamee, M. J., (Ed) Philosophy, and the Sciences of Exercise, Health and Sport: critical perspectives on research methods, Routledge, 2004. (5) Park, R.J., Eckert, H.M. (Eds): New possibilities, new paradigms?

(American Academy of Physical Education Papers no. 24), Champaign II: Human Kinetics, 1991. (6) Renson, R.: From physical education to kinanthropology: a quest for academic and professional identity. Quest 41: 235-256, 1989. (7)Renson, R.: History of sport science: hanging together or hanging separately? Presentation to the ECSS Congress, Copenhagen, 2001.

COACHES’ ALTERNATIVE DEFINITIONS OF THEIR PROFFESIONAL SUCCESS

Dumitriu, D.

National School of Political Sciences and Public Administration Introduction An important part in the dynamics of sport social field is built around the relationship between the representational sphere and the corollary sphere of action. How we perceive things is important and, moreover, is the mere input for how we act. Therefore, the way sport actors define and relate to the competitive framework becomes decisive in explaining their professional practices and level of engagement in sport acts. Focusing on the representational pole of this cognitive-action dyad, the main aim of this study is to lay stress on the way Romanian handball coaches define professional success. What or who brings coaches their success? Is coaches’ professional success based solely on the wining–losing track record? When can we speak of successful coaching career? These are the guiding lines that settle the research framework for the present study. Methods The research design of this case study combines a qualitative exploration of Romanian handball coaches’ social representations upon professional success with a quantitative approach meant to highlight the level of convergence and the dominant positions inside handball coaches’ community. Thus, the 23 in-depth interviews and the survey conducted on a 118 handball coaches’ sample should be understood in terms of methodological complementarity. Results While the quantitative results place success mainly in relation to the task goal orientation and the passion trigger beyond sport engagement, the qualitative approach brings out a more contextualized definition of professional success, providing alternative paths in reaching it: from a result oriented definition of professional success, to a pedagogic-formative framing of success. Discussion Both the quantitative and the qualitative approaches converge in laying emphasis on the team-dependency condition of coaches’ success. This success’ component that seems to be off coaches’ control, works also as a self-esteem protective mechanism, leaving room for an endless problematization of success. To sustain this convenient value of coaches’ limited responsibility towards their own professional success, the qualitative research brings out a significant duality in terms of public discourse and actual convictions of Romanian handball coaches.

The public pressure associated with the moral and social desirability standards makes coaches embrace a soft definition of success, favoring the task goal orientation as a rational response to the perceived social expectations. However, results and track records remain coaches’ ultimate proof of success, acting as the most powerful success indicator both in and outside the sport professional community.

Note: The author of this study is beneficiary of the Doctoral Scholarships for a Sustainable Society Project, co-financed by the European Union through the European Social Fund, Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources and Development 2007-2013

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SPORT ATTITUDES AND MOTIVATIONAL CLIMATE IN TWO CONTRASTING FOOTBALL CLUBS

Domingues, M., Gonçalves, C.E.

Faculty of Sports Science. University of Coimbra Aim: To investigate the relationship between perceived motivational climate, sportspersonship, social–moral functioning and team norms

in a sample of young male Portuguese football players as well as to verify possible contextual factors mediating that relationship. Design:

It was expected that motivational climate of the social club would be associated with lower levels of social–moral functioning, sportspersonship and the perceptions of team norms that would approve of illegitimate behaviors in football. Alongside this, a more mastery-oriented climate by the POC was hypothesized to be beneficial with respect to social–moral functioning, sporstspersonship and morally constructive team norm perceptions. Method: A cross-sectional study of 125 male football players (aged 13–17 years) was conducted in which players responded to a questionnaire measuring different dimensions of social–moral functioning namely sportspersonship behaviors and team norm perceptions. The players also responded to their perception of coaches motivational climate regarding a more mastery oriented or inversely, a more performance dictated sporting climate. Results: Results show consistent higher scores both in SAQ and PMCSQ-2 in POC youth athletes with clear task orientation and a more pro-social acceptance of sport, importance of personal improvement, cooperation and collective sense. SOC and POC showed similar results in ego orientation which might be conducive of different intricate ego orientations. Conclusion: The findings illustrate the importance of studying motivational climate in contrasting sporting environments in order to provide an understanding of social–moral functioning and social–moral team norms in youth football and also a way to determine interpersonal relations that are key to establish a good climate.





PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION IN FINLAND – FOUNDATION BUILT FOR HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE

1960’S Lahti, J.

University of Jyväskylä INTRODUCTION Physical activity is an important part of Finns’ lives. Finland ranks among the top nations in sport participation. Elite sport is also socially significant in the Finnish society. Finland is one of the few countries in Europe where qualified physical education teachers are required to have a master level education. This dates back to 1963 when physical education teacher education (PETE) became an academic discipline at the University of Jyväskylä, which still is the only place in the country with higher PE teacher education. This paper is a part of the doctoral study that examines the changes and developments of the PETE in its 50 years’ history in Finland. This presentation scrutinizes the first decade of the PETE in Finland. The aim is to search for the underlying starting points of the content formation of PE teacher education. This will be conducted in the framework of historical research. DATA and METHOD The data consists of the official and public resources; documents of the curriculum criteria and interviews of the key persons in the development of PETE in Finland. Legislation concerning education together with archive materials, magazine and newspaper articles are also important sources of research material. The data is analyzed with the method of document analysis. RESULTS In 1963 when the PETE started, the curriculum was rather practically oriented. At that time students usually graduated in three years, whereas now, PE teachers study approximately five years. In the very beginning, PETE was based on the guidelines of a committee report by the government. In addition, the content of the curriculum was influenced by individual staff members of the Department of Education. Especially at the early stages of PE education in Jyväskylä the pioneers of educators had an important role in shaping the curriculum. DISCUSSION University of Jyväskylä is the only place in Finland where PE teachers are educated. This brings both advantages and challenges. On one hand, Jyväskylä holds a nationwide educational task which is supported by public resources. On the other hand, with its monopoly position as the only PETE unit in the country, there is a risk that “healthy” competition with quality improvements is scarce. Historical analysis of the foundation and the first decade of PETE in Finland become interesting not only because of the curricula changes with their societal linkages during the 50 years’ of education. The first decade of PETE serves research attention also as it brings to light facts, persons and incidences that have had substantial and long term consequences in the way sport and physical activity are taught, participated and valued in a society that is one of the most physically active in the whole world.

08:30 - 10:00 Oral presentations OP-PM44 Sports Medicine [SM] 5

BENEFITS OF FIFA 11+ PROTOCOL DURING FIVE SEASONS, A PRELIMINARY STUDY IN YOUNG PROFESSIONAL SOCCER

PLAYERS

Olla, S.1,2,3, Scorcu, M.1,2, Piras, F.1,2, Cugia, P.1,2, Angius, L.3,4 1:F.M.S.I.,Cagliari,Italy;2:Cagliari Calcio S.p.a.,Cagliari,Italy;3:Laboratory of Sport Physiology,University of Cagliari,Italy;4:School of Sport and Exercise Sciences,Univerity of Kent,(UK) Introduction and aims: Football as most of the team sports involves alternation of low and high phases of running intensity. As consequence, a higher increase of injuries is present during match or training. According to this, technical and medical staff work to prevent the onset and the increment of injuries. Numerous protocol of prevention have been proposed to reduce the amount of injuries. The aim is to monitor the application of FIFA 11+ protocol in a young professional football academy during five seasons. Methods: a sample of 820 young-players aged between 10-21 years old, was monitored during five Italian championship seasons (from 2007/08 to 2011/12) both during training and match sessions. FIFA 11+ protocol was applied only during the first four season except during the last (2011/12). All the injuries were examined by the medical staff and subsequently classified according to: number of injury, role and condition. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to check differences between each seasons. Significance was set at p0,05. Results: the total amount of injuries during the five seasons was 380 (81, 80, 75, 60 and 84). The case report shows a greater incidence in defenders compared to midfielders, strikers and goalkeepers (32.00 ± 7.25, 20.20 ± 4.66, 16.40 ± 4.39 and 7.40 ± 3.05). Number of injuries during

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training was (61, 65, 56, 45 and 51) while during match was (20, 15, 19, 15 and 33). Discussion: Defenders and midfielders were the most affected roles because of the higher density of players in those areas of the pitch. Interestingly this analysis shows a progressive decline of the total number of injury through each season except for the 2011/12. Same decline has been found during training sessions. Results indicates that application of the FIFA 11+ protocol is able to reduce the onset of injury. On the contrary when the protocol was not used, an increment has been observed. In conclusion we can affirm that prevention strategies are important to preserve the physical integrity of players. References: 1. Backous DD, Friedl KE, Smith NJ, et al. Am J Dis Child 1988;142(8):839-42; 2. Koutures CG,Gregory AJ. Pediatrics 2010;125 (February (2)):410–4.

INJURIES IN GERMAN ELITE MEN’S HANDBALL - VIDEO ANALYSIS OF MATCH INJURIES

Luig, P., Klein, C., Henke, T.

Ruhr-Universität Bochum Introduction: Elite Men’s Handball is undoubtedly a physically demanding team sport with intense body contact and highly intermittent running stressing the athlete’s cardiovascular, metabolic and musculoskeletal systems. The first two German national leagues promote themselves as best leagues of the world and are home to numerous international top players. However, among German professional sports handball ranks absolutely high in national injury statistics. This fact endangers game operations of the clubs through steadily increasing insurance rates. Methodology: Registered injuries from the insurer’s injury database as well as resulting costs and disabilities are analyzed for three consecutive first and second league seasons (2010-2013). Moreover, identifiable match injuries are assessed through video analysis to objectify the circumstances and situations that frequently lead to injuries. Gathered information will be used to reveal key areas for prevention and to tailor targeted counter-strategies for elite clubs, coaches and athletes. Results: During the first two seasons (2010-2012) 3,732 injuries were registered causing direct medical costs of 4.25 million and 33,000 days of disability. 65 % of injuries need medical treatment only, 35 % cause time-loss (disability). Each player sustained 2.4 injuries per season (0.9 time-loss injuries/season). Injury incidence in league games was 63.7 injuries/1000h (23.7 time-loss injuries/1000h). Knee (12.9 %), ankle (11.6 %) and shoulder (9.5 %) were most frequently affected. Most severe injuries were knee injuries that, on average, induced 52 days of disability and 3,250 costs, followed by hand injuries (49 days, 1,500) and shoulder injuries (38 days, 1,500). Preliminary results of the video analysis show that single-leg landings from jump shots or blocks and side-cutting moves in “1 on 1”-situations, with or without contact, provoke lower extremity injuries. By contrast most upper extremity, trunk and head injuries are caused by direct physical impact through opposing players, falls and ball hits. Discussion: Men’s handball on elite level bears a high injury risk. As the primary goal of professional athletes is to maximize performance, preventive measures can best be integrated as standard components in sport-specific performance enhancement programmes and warm-up routines. This includes technique training for crucial handball movement patterns that typically lead to match injuries in both contact and non-contact situations. It is essential to have injury prevention modules included on all levels of athletes’ and coaches’ education to increase the chances of sustainable inclusion of injury prevention measures in training and coaching. Moreover, federations, clubs and coaches are certainly in charge to protect their athletes best possible. Sufficient preparation and regeneration, especially prior to and after major international events, is of highest priority.



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