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Theory and Application. (London: Routlegde) Nesti, M.S. and Littlewood, M. (2009) Psychological preparation and development of players in premiership football: practical and theoretical perspectives. In International Research in Science and Soccer. (eds) Riley, T., Williams, A.M., and Drust, B. London: Routledge. Parker, A. (2001). Soccer, Servitude and Subcultural Identity: Football Traineeship and Masculine Construction. Soccer and Society, 2 (1) pp 59-80. Pepitas, A., (1978). Identity Foreclosure: A Unique Challenge. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 56, 558-561. Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research. Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
BREAKING WAVES: THE WITHIN-CAREER TRANSITIONS EXPERIENCED BY A HIGH PERFORMANCE ADOLESCENTSWIMMER.
Lyons, D., MacPhail, A.
University of Limerick Introduction An athletic career is determined by developments within sporting, psychological, psychosocial and academic/vocational domains (Wylleman & Lavallee, 2004). Within-career transitions are turning phases in the course of an athletic career (Stambulova, Alfermann, Statler, & Côté, 2009). Alongside transitions that can be expected, such as the move from junior to elite-level sport, athletes also face less predictable transitions such as the loss of a coach. The aim of this study is to explore the within-career transitions experienced by an adolescent high performance swimmer, Kelli, as she made the transition from school to university. Methodology This exploratory case study employed a life history methodology. The study began with the use of a retrospective life history grid (adapted from Côté, Ericsson, and Law, 2005) to trace Kelli’s development in sport. Over the next two years data from qualitative interviews and observations were collected to gain an insight into Kelli’s life, her choices, decisions and their consequences. The results were analysed using a constant comparative method of inductive data coding. Findings During the two years of the study Kelli experienced a number of transitions both planned and unpredicted across all the domains of her athletic career including the move from junior to senior level sport, the loss of a coach, a change of club, the move from school to university, injury and the maturation from adolescence into young adulthood.
Kelli’s micro-system consisting of herself, her parents, coaches and peers, and their interaction, were the main facilitators in her successful negotiation of the transitions experienced. As Kelli had made decisions on her future academic life based on her swimming goals the loss of her coach and the subsequent move to a new club resulted in her changing her choice of university and programme of study.
Negotiating multiple transitions concurrently was a major source of stress for Kelli. Conclusion Using in-depth case studies to explore the transitions experienced by talented young athletes can help us understand the complexities of athletes’ decision making and the ultimate consequences that play out. Macro levels, contextual factors such as the sports system, cultural factors and education policy played a significant role in how Kelli, and her parents, coach and peers made decisions that impacted on her athlete career. These contextual factors need to be considered when designing programmes for young talented athletes to facilitate development, reduce talent loss and maximise athletes’ potential. References Côté,J., Ericsson,K.A. & Law,M.P. (2005). J Appl Sport Psychol,17,1-19. Stambulova,N., Alfermann, D., Statler,T., & Côté,J. (2009). IJSEP, 7, 395 - 412. Wylleman,P., & Lavallee,D. (2004) in M. Weiss (Ed.), Developmental sport psychology, 507-527.
A QUALITATIVE EXPLORATION OF ATHLETES’ EXPERIENCES OF A THREE TIER POST OLYMPIC DEBRIEFING PROGRAMME.Moore, P.1, McArdle, S.2, Lyons, D.3 1: MMU/IIS (Manchester, England; Dublin, Ireland), 2. DCU (Dublin, Ireland), 3. IIS (Dublin, Ireland) Introduction The challenges of the Post Olympic Games transition process has been well documented (McCann, 2000). Despite this very little attention has been given to the development and evaluation of post Games psychological support services. To support Irish Olympians and Paralympians in the post Games transition process, the Irish Institute of Sport (IIS) developed a three Tier debriefing programme.
This programme included supportive contact with athletes three to four days after their event, an individual debrief and/or athlete led support groups four to five weeks post the games and follow-up psychological support if requested or agreed by the athlete. Given the lack of research on psychological interventions targeted at the post Games transition process (both within and end of career), the aim of this study was to conduct a process evaluation on the IIS debriefing programme. Methods Employing a qualitative study design, a purposive sample of 10 Irish Olympic athletes (4 females and 6 males) who participated in the IIS programme were recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. The topic guide focused on examining participants’ overall experience of the programme as well as their views on programme implementation and structure. A thematic analytic approach was employed to identify key themes in the data.
Results Athletes reported that they had no clear expectations for the debriefing programme but were positively surprised by the experience. In this regard they suggested that more effective communication was required to encourage greater uptake of the support and acknowledged the challenges associated with reaching the Olympic cohort. Perceived benefits experienced included changes in mood (e.g., increased positive affect, decreased anxiety) and increased motivation. All of the athletes indicated that the normalisation of their cognitive and emotional responses in the post Olympic period was one component of the programme that had significant utility. Timing of initial contact by service providers was a prevalent theme with most athletes agreeing that enough time should be allowed for reflection and emotional recovery before discussing their Olympic experience. Discussion These findings contribute to the existing literature by elucidating the importance of post-Games psychological support and specific challenges to effective engagement and therefore have implications for future service delivery and implementation. References McCann, S. C. (2000). Doing sport psychology at the really big show. In M. B. Anderson (Ed.), Doing Sport Psychology (pp. 223-234). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
THE MOTHER’S PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT IN HIGH LEVEL SPORTPalomo, M., Ruiz, L.M., García, V.
Universidad de Castilla La Mancha Introduction The research on the role of the family in the sport has recently determined how parents play a vital and varied support in sport development, holding differents roles in it (Wolfenden and Holt, 2005).In a concrete way the family psychological´s support provided to children athletes has been defined in the literature as a positive attitude to sport key to the enjoyment of the sport itself (Camire, Trudel and Forneris, 2009), other authors have defined it as a support related to motivation given to the children for sports (Keegan, Harwood, Spray and Lavallee, 2009) or that family being considered as the first source of encouragement (Kesend, 1991). Aim:Therefore, the objective of this research was to define the role and counseling of the mother in the reach of the high level of young athletes. Method:To that end 20 high-level athletes and 17 of their mothers were interviewed. We used a qualitative methodology, inductive, based on technical and typical procedures of Grounded Theory (Corbin and Satruss, 2008).Results:The results establish that psychological support as an assistance provided by the mother to her child athlete referred to mind control and reach the maximum potential and performance in their sport, set in an attitude for success. Psychological Support category consists, in turn, of four dimensions: General Psychological Support, refers to how the mother helps from a mental point of view and in a global mode in order to make sure her child is in top condition and reaches the maximum athletic performance. It is a support based on mood, confidence, giving freedom, stay positive... Psychological Support for the competition, is the assistance provided by the mother referred to counseling focused on the competition. Psychological Support in High Level, is the support of the mother during a particular stage of the sport development.Adolescence Psychological Support, the support at this stage is focused on helping in a difficult period, in which the doubts, fears and worries are constant. Conclusion:In general it can be concluded that the mother helps her child from the psychological point of view showing different ways and periods in which such support varies, modifies or increases its intensity depending on the needs of the young athlete.
MOTIVATIONS OF MASTERS SURF LIFESAVERSReddan, G.
Griffith University MOTIVATIONS OF MASTERS SURF LIFESAVERS Introduction An understanding of the reasons people participate in sport and exercise is fundamental to the promotion of a healthy lifestyle. Attitudes to physical activity and competition have changed significantly, resulting in the development of masters’ games competitions. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that motivate masters surf lifesavers to participate in competition. Methods The Motivations of Marathoners Scales (Masters, Ogles & Jolton (1993) consider four general categories: physical health motives; social motives ; achievement motives ; and psychological motives. The Scales were modified (Ogles and Masters, 2003) and forwarded to all competitors throughout Australia. 142 responses were received – 114 male and 28 female.
These were divided into young (30-49) and old (50+) competitors, with 78 and 64 in each respective category. Means and standard deviations were used to identify the most important motives for competition, as well as for each age group and gender. Results General Health Orientation was considered the most important motive for participation. These items focused on improving one’s health, prolonging life and becoming more physically fit. The second most important motive cited was Affiliation. The items denoting this motive including socializing with friends and sharing a group identity. The old competitors indicated General Health Orientation to be the most important motive. Personal Goal Achievement was considered the second most important motive, with Affiliation rated third by this age group. The younger competitors similarly rated General Health Orientation as the most important, but not to the same degree. Interestingly, this group rated Affiliation second and Personal Goal Achievement third from the nine scales. Differences were demonstrated between the old and young competitors in regards to the importance of Personal Goal Achievement and Self-Esteem. Female competitors rated Affiliation as the most important motive, followed closely by General Health Orientation and Personal Goal Achievement. Males rated General Health Orientation as clearly the most important motive, ahead of Affiliation and Life Meaning. Significant differences between the genders were found only in the rating of Life Meaning. Discussion Although ageing causes inevitable physical changes, physical activity associated with sports competition for older adults becomes even more important (Cox & Reed, 2007). This research indicates
specific motives that are considered most important for participation. Leaders of activity programs need to match this diversity to ensure wide participation and a satisfying experience for all participants. References Cox & Reed (2007). J Sport Behavior. 30(3), 307-330. Masters, Ogles & Jolton (1993).Research Quarterly in Exercise & Sport, 64, 134-143. Ogles & Masters (2003). J of Sport Behavior. 26(1), 69-85 08:30 - 10:00 Oral presentations OP-SH11 Sociology [SO] 1
SPORT SCIENCE IN EUROPE: FIRST STEPS IN A “SCIENCE STUDIES 1, 2” RESEARCH PROJECTCamy, J.
University Claude Bernard, Lyon Our purpose is to present a research project framework and some preliminary results on “Sport Science as an academic discipline in a European context”. Science studies is an interdisciplinary research area that seeks to situate scientific expertise in a broad social, historical, and philosophical context. It is concerned with the history of scientific disciplines, the interrelationships between science and society, and the alleged covert purposes that underlie scientific claims. In Sport Sciences, Historians (5), (6), (7) and philosophers (3), (4), have already paved the way, underlying multiple national and international ideological and institutional conflicts between different theories, movements and professional bodies. We intend here to introduce and illustrate four key topics belonging to the science studies area : The definition of the field of sport science as it has been controversially discussed by players: which object (sport, exercise, physical activities…)? Which relations with existing disciplines? Which specificity for Sport Science? Which paradigms to mobilize? - The outcomes of sport science, analysis of the “products” such as presentations in Sport Science Congresses and publications in related Journals and the ways they are evaluated; - The community of sport scientists, a systematic approach of the individual “producers” (where do they come from and how do they build their professional careers?) and of the institutional framework into which they operate (research teams and institutions, scientific societies…); - The research activities frameworks (research production processes), the way research activities are planned, financed and organized, the operational cooperation with field players (such as the “sport and physical activities stakeholders”) and decision makers… That framework will be put under discussion as well as each of its components. References: (1) Bloor, David;
Barnes, Barry & Henry, John, Scientific knowledge: a sociological analysis, Chicago: University Press, 1996. (2) Latour. B. Science in Action: