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«Hosted by the: National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC) ISBN 978-84-695-7786-8 European College of Sport Science: Book of ...»

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Insitutute for Sport and Physical Activity Research Over the past decade in the UK, the rise in salience to government of PE and school sport-related policy interventions has been remarkable for the wide-ranging array of objectives that these interventions have been expected to realize (Phillpots, 2008). In light of increasing government intervention and interest in physical education and school sport, we analysis and evaluate the Physical Education, School Sport and Club Links (PESSCL) strategy which is one of the most significant sport policies in 2000s. Drawing on Basil Bernstein’s (1990,1996) theory of the social production of pedagogic discourse, the primary aim of this presentation is to identify the physical cultural discourses that have informed the PESSCL strategy and its implementation in terms of sport organisation between 2000 and 2010. We have conducted a documentary analysis (Halperin & Heath, 2012), analyzing discourses embedded in PE and school sport policy documents (n=9) and adapted grounded theory approach (Glaser, & Strauss,1967) in order to conceptualize how notions of physical culture are produced and reproduced across primary and recontextualizing fields in which specific agents and agencies operate. This is combined with conducting semi-structured interviews (n=8) with these agencies and an analysis of the outputs of various media (n=467). We identify a number of physical cultural discourses within these policy and other documents and sources, including discourses of health and obesity, good citizenship and volunteering, and elite sport development with a particular concern for the London 2012 Games. Moreover, we discover evidence, consistent with Goodson’s (1990) thesis about the social construction of school subjects, of struggles and contestation among vying groups, in this case between agencies such as Youth Sport Trust and Sport England to take the lead in implementing government policy (ie. PESSCL). In conclusion, we question whether there is any connection between government policies, commissioned evaluation reports (eg. by Ofsted, TNS-BMRB and the Loughborough Partnership), and the practice of forms of physical education and school sport.

References Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago:Aldine Publish. Goodson, I.F. (1990). Studying curriculum: towards a social constructionist perspective. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 22(4), 299Halperin, S., & Heath, O. (2012). Political Research: Methods and Practical Skills. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Phillpots, L (2008).

Sport development and young people in England. In B. Houlihan and M. Green(eds.) Routledge handbook of sport development. London:

Routledge.

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PE TEACHERS’ CONSTRUCTIONS OF SOCIAL AND BODILY DIVERSITY AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON TEACHING PROCESSES IN MULTI-CULTURAL PE CLASSES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE NETHERLANDS

Van Doodewaard, C.L., Knoppers, A.E.

Windesheim, university of Applied Sciences, Zwolle Introduction Over the years Dutch Physical Education (PE)-classes have become more ethnically mixed (Statistics Netherlands, 2009a) and diversity in behavioral and physical competences has increased (Statistics Netherlands, 2009b). This is placing greater demands on PE teachers (Bax,et al., 2010). Purpose of this project is to gain insight in the way PE teachers (re)construct social and physical differences in multicultural (MC) classrooms and how these constructions influence teaching processes of inclusion and exclusion. We use a social constructionist perspective to investigate the nature of the interactions between teachers and students that reflect cultural traditions and general patterns of action (Grenier, 2007). Research questions are: How do PE teachers construct diversity? Which strategies do PE teachers use to manage diversity in the gym? How do these constructions and strategies inform processes of inclusion and exclusion in PE classes? Methods Thirteen semi-structured and video stimulated interviews were conducted with PE teachers of MC classrooms. We used qualitative data analysis software to analyze the interviews. The outcomes were discussed and confronted with research literature.

Results Four meta themes emerged from the data: relating to students, dealing with cultural identities, engaging in leadership, and assessing performance. Results indicated that PE teachers developed close ties with their students. It seems that they construct a set of deviations in maintaining and releasing classroom rules to include MC students. Moreover, they use these constructions in connection to the cultural backgrounds of students. Thereby, they construct appreciation and acceptation for building an own identity as very important.

Discussion Teachers’ pedagogical aims seem to conflict with their constructions about managing student behavior in relation to authority themes and assessing students learning improvements. The model for pedagogic discourse of Evans and Davies (2004) seems useful to describe the tensions and constructions, which influence inclusion and exclusion processes of students. For theory development and PETE it is advised to pay attention to the role that modes and constructions seem to play on (deviations from) social and physical standards for the learning opportunities of students. References Bax, H, van Driel, G, Jansma, F. & van der Palen, H. (2010). Beroepsprofiel leraar lichamelijke opvoeding. Zeist: Jan Luiting Fonds. Evans, J. & Davies, B. (2004). Endnote: The embodiment of consciousness. Bernstein, health and schooling. In J. Evans, B. Davies, & J. Wright (Eds.), Body Knowledge and Control: Studies in the sociology of physical education and health (pp. 207-217). London: Routledge. Grenier, M. (2007). Inclusion in physical education: From the medical model to social constructionism. Quest, 59, 298-310. Statistics Netherlands (2009a). Jaarrapport 2009 Landelijke Jeugdmonitor. Den Haag, Nederland: CBS.





Statistics Netherlands (2009b). Jaarboek Onderwijs in cijfers 2009. Den Haag: Nederland: CBS.

FACTORS INFLUENCING PARENTS’S INVOLVEMENT IN A SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION FOR THE PROMOTION OF

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTHY EATING

Beltrán-Carrillo, V.J., Sierra, A.C., González-Cutre, D., Cervelló, E., Montero-Carretero, C.

Universidad Miguel Hernandez Do not insert authors here Introduction School-based interventions are common and efficient strategies for the promotion of healthy lifestyles among youth (Story et al., 2009). Parents’ involvement in this kind of interventions is considered crucial for their effectiveness (Golley et al., 2010), but achieving parents’ participation is not an easy matter. This qualitative study analyzes the factors influencing parents’ participation in the activities addressed to them as part of a 6-month school-based intervention for the promotion of physical activity and healthy eating. Methods The intervention with parents consisted of three meetings (theoretical presentation and debate) and a trekking day trip with parents and pupils. These activities were addressed to the parents of 104 pupils aged 14-16 years old and belonging to the same school centre. The data for this study came from the research diary of the person in charge of the fieldwork, who took notes of the events and conversations she attended during the activities with the parents. Four focus groups with pupils and a focus group with parents also served as sources of qualitative data for this study. The data were analyzed with the support of the software Nvivo, following a conventional content analysis (Hsieh and Shannon, 2005). Results The parents’ attendance to the different activities was low (5-8 parents). A lack of communication between pupils and parents was a barrier for their participation, although the attendance to the last meeting remained low (17 parents) after a direct contact with parents by phone. Work and family duties were identified as other barriers for their participation in the different activities, but according to some parents and pupils, many parents did not participate because of a lack of interest. However, parents who took part in the activities were satisfied with them, especially with the trekking day trip, and asked for longer interventions in their children’s school. Discussion New technologies could favour the direct contact with parents in this kind of interventions. More socially interactive activities could increase parents’ attendance and help to create a collaborative social network for a real promotion of healthy lifestyles at school. This social network composed by parents, pupils, researchers and teachers, and based on strong social links between the different agents, needs time to be built. According to these findings, only long-term interventions lasting several years could obtain this purpose. References Golley RK, Hendrie GA, Slater A, Corsini N. (2010). Obes Rev, 12, 114Hsieh HF, Shannon SE. (2005). Qual Health Res, 15(9), 1277-1288. Story M, Nanney M, Schwartz MB. (2009). Milbank Q, 87(1), 71-100.

08:30 - 10:00 Oral presentations OP-SH08 Psychology [PS] 4

THE INTERRELATION OF SPORT PSYCHOLOGY AND SPORT SCIENCES IN THE PREPARATION OF ELITE PERFORMERS.

Fink, C., Balague, G.

University of Illinois at Chicago, YSC Sports Introduction It is understood that sport psychology plays an important role in the preparation of elite level athletes. What has not received enough attention is the need for sport psychology interventions to incorporate information from the other sport sciences. A sport psychologist who is unaware of specific exercise physiology, biomechanics, and/or training principles risks designing interventions that may

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actually interfere with performance. Interactions of Sport Psychology and Sport Sciences: The body of the presentation will describe the ways in which the specific requirements of the training phase, such as the physiological demands or biomechanical elements of the task, must be considered when determining the psychological needs of the athlete and possible interventions. A psychologist without knowledge of the various components of sport sciences may mistake the response to heavy training loads as clinical depression, thus wrongly pathologizing a situation. Interventions widely used in sport psychology, such as imagery and visualization must be considered within the context of the training phase. Often, sport psychology training is done only during the beginning of the season because of time constraints. Asking the athlete to create a multi-sensory image of the actions required at peak competitive time is contrary to the information being registered at the muscular level during the heavy conditioning phase (i.e., training phase). Therefore, it is likely that the intervention will not be helpful or learned correctly. Biomechanical knowledge of the demands of the movement is also important when working with an athlete on a centering routine or a focal point identification. For instance, in some sports, choosing a focal point on the ground may make the athlete lower his or her head at the beginning of a motion that requires a straight posture to be effective. Specific examples of all of these situations in a variety of sports will be presented. Discussion The importance of integrating the sport psychologist within the sport scientists and coaching team will be discussed. The presentation will also discuss identifying some of the specific needs of the athlete-sport psychologist relationship that also need to be protected, such as confidentiality. Implications for the training of sport psychologists will be highlighted and the idea of an integrated working model discussed.

IDENTITY FORMATION IN PROFESSIONAL YOUTH TEAM FOOTBALL ENVIRONMENTS

Mitchell, T.O.1, Nesti, M.S., Richardson, D.J., Littlewood, M.A.

University Centre Doncaster & Liverpool John Moores University Introduction Practitioners, such as coaches, play a significant role in influencing the working environment created and also in determining the ideal player characteristics (Identity). A strong, flexible sense of self may be most suitable for young players to meet their potential and maximise chances of progression (Nesti & Littlewood, 2009). Football environments have been characterised as; dominant, authoritarian and masculine (Parker, 2001). Such features may not facilitate the development of a strong, flexible identity. The aim of this study was to gain a critical understanding of ideal player characteristics required for progression to professional status and to understand organisational strategies influencing such characteristics. Methods Nineteen (N = 19) youth development practitioners from 10 (N = 10) English professional football clubs undertook semi-structured interviews exploring perceptions of ideal player characteristics. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and exposed to notions of content analysis (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Discussion Practitioners required players to have a deep self belief, be mentally resilient, have their own agenda and possess emotional stability. Such notions resonate to the work of Erikson (1968) on Identity, and more specifically, knowing who and what you are as an individual. Practitioners employed strategies to promote such characteristics whilst acknowledging some ideal characteristics were predetermined and beyond the influence of the club.

Traditional notions of conformity, discipline and professionalism remain prevalent increasing risk of Identity foreclosure (Pepitas, 1978) which may inhibit development of a strong sense of self. Practitioners must be aware that at critical moments, such as transition, such

foreclosure can increase psychological discomfort (Nesti, 2004). This may ultimately reduce chances of progression into first team environments. References Erikson, E.H. (1968) Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton. Nesti, M.S. (2004). Existential Psychology and Sport:



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