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Baralic, I.1, Djordjevic, B.2, Andjelkovic, M.1, Dikic, N.1, Kotur Stevuljevic, J.2, Sopic, M.2, Antic, T.1, Vukasinovic-Vesic, M.1, Radojevic-Skodric, S.3 1: Sports Medicine Association of Serbia, 2: Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, 3: School of Medicine, University of Belgrade Introduction The purpose of the current study was to determine whether soccer exercise is able to cause oxidative stress and DNA instability. Also, we sought to investigate if adaptive response will be developed during 90 day training period and to what extent. Methods 14 male elite soccer players, members of soccer team “Teleoptik” participated in the study. Blood samples were collected at the onset of the study and after 90 days of regular training in pre-exercise and post-exercise conditions. We used comet assay to investigate leukocyte DNK stability. The results were presented as DNA score and percent of cells with medium and high damage. Oxidative stress was estimated through blood levels of superoxide anion (O2•¯), total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidative status (TAS), sulphydril groups (SH) and redox balance. The effect of time and exercise and of the combined factors (interaction) on each parameter was analyzed using ANOVA repeated-measures, with time (onset of the study vs. end of the study) and exercise (pre-exercise vs. post-exercise) as the two within-subject factors. Results DNA score did not change significantly in response to soccer exercise. Soccer exercise induced significant increase in the percent of cells with medium and high damage (p0.05), but only at the beginning of the observational period. However, this parameter, as well as DNA score decreased significantly after 90 days of training period (main time effect, p0.05 and p0.001, respectively). O2•¯ levels increased as a result of regular soccer training over the 90 days (main time effect, p0.001, respectively). Soccer players experienced significant increase in O2•¯ levels in response to exercise at the end of the study (main exercise effect, p0.01; exercise x time effect, p0.05). Following 90 days of regular training, TOS and redox balance significantly decreased (main time effect, p0.001). There was significant time and exercise interaction effect (p0.01), since we noticed increase in TOS levels post-exercise at the end of the study, but no change at the beginning. We observed a remarkable decrease in TAS in response to exercise both at the beginning and at the end of the study (main exercise effect, p0.001). Total SH groups content at rest increased significantly after 90 days of regular training (main time effect, p0.01). Discussion Soccer players are exposed to increased levels of oxidative stress at the beginning of the training season, which might compromise DNA stability and decrease capacity of antioxidant defense. However, regular soccer

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training can have a protective effect due to upregulation of antioxidant defense system, causing lower oxidative stress and DNA damage, despite increased production of free radicals. Fisher-Wellman K, Bloomer RJ. (2009). Dynamic Med, 8, 1-25.



Engel, F., Stockinger, C., Härtel, S., Bös, K.

Karlsruher Institute of Technology Introduction Recovery from High Intensive Interval Training (HIIT) and High Intensive Training (HIT) is faster in children than in adults but the exact mechanisms for the difference in recovery remain unclear (Ratel et al., 2006). However, recovery of blood lactate kinetics and muscle power following HIIT and HIT in trained boys remains relatively unknown. The present study aimed to determine the recovery from HIIT and HIT on blood lactate kinetics and performance in young and adult male athletes. Methods Twenty-one trained boys (11.5±0.8 years) and 19 trained men (29.6±4.8 years) performed (a) four consecutive Wingate Anaerobic Tests (HIIT) and (b) one single Wingate Anaerobic Test (HIT). Blood lactate concentration (BLC) was measured after each of the four Wingate Anaerobic Tests in HIIT and after HIT

and for 30 minutes of recovery in both tests. The individual BLC recovery curves were fitted to a biexponential time function:

LA(t)=LA(0)+A1(1-e-γ1t)+A2(1-e-γ2t), where γ1 and γ2 describe the abilities to exchange lactate between the previously active muscle and

the blood and to eliminate lactate from the organism, respectively (Freund and Zouloumian, 1981). Performance was measured throughout both tests. Results In both tests peak BLC was significantly lower in boys (HIIT: 12.2±3.6 mmol/l; HIT: 8.7±1.8 mmol/l) than in men (HIIT:

16.1±3.3 mmol/l; HIT: 11.5±2.1; p0.01). Higher γ1 and γ2 values were observed in boys in both tests (p0.01). Decrease of performance from 1st to 4th Wingate Anaerobic Test in HIIT was lower in boys than in men (p0.01). Discussion It was concluded that both abilities, the faster lactate exchange and the better elimination of lactate from the organism, in boys while and after HIIT and HIT leads to diminished peak BLC. The better lactate removal in boys subsequent to HIIT and HIT represents a faster recovery following HIIT and HIT. The faster recovery enables the boys to a better efficiency to maintain muscle power during HIIT. The fast lactate removal shown in boys in the present study is most likely one mechanism for the fast recovery after HIIT and HIT in children that remained undefined by Ratel et al.

(2006). References Freund H, Zouloumian P (1981). Lactate after exercise in man. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 46:121–176. Ratel S, Duché P, Williams CA (2006). Muscle fatigue during high-intensity exercise in children. Sports Med. 36(12):1031-1065.

08:30 - 10:00 Oral presentations OP-SH04 Physical Education and Pedagogics [PP] 3


Queirós, P., Batista, P., Ferreira, A.M.

University of Porto / Faculty of Sport Introduction To understand how the pre-service teachers turn themselves into teachers and how they develop their professional identity during the practicum is not an easy task. It is important to uncover the transformations that occur during the practicum, namely the linkage between structure and agency (Giddens, 1884). Trying to better understand how the pre-service teachers developed their professional identity the aim of this study is to describe the main characteristics of a group of 4 pre-service teachers in the beginning of their practicum. Methods Data collection The data collection resulted from a participant observation made between 21st September 2012 and 5th February 2013 in a practicum group of Physical Education pre-service teachers that works in a secondary public school of Porto, Portugal. The researcher developed an ethnographic study and stays 4 days each week in the school with the group of pre-service teachers observing their classes, staff reunions, collective and individual seminars and other school activities. During the observation period field notes were taken and informal interviews were done in order to clarify some specific situations or uncover particular meanings attributed by the pre-service teachers. Data analysis The concept of metaphors (based on the field notes and in the informal interviews) was used to outlining the initial profile of each pre-service teacher. Tannehill and MacPhail (2012) stated that “generally, we think of a metaphor as a figure of speech or something that we use to replace ‘normal’ words in order to help others understand or enjoy our message.” (p. 3) A different metaphor for each pre-service teacher was used to inform the readers about the type of teachers I (as researcher) interpret them as beginning teachers. Results and Discussion Although they all work within the practicum group, the preservice teachers tend to expose different characteristics, which can define them as novice teachers. These different features are related to their personal beliefs, values and teaching perspectives. Even though, there are also some characteristics that are common to all preservice teachers. In fact, the pre-service teachers mostly tend to act based in what they think the cooperating teacher expect, just applying what is prescribed. Understanding agency as the capacity to act independently and to take responsibility for our actions (Giddens, 1984), it is noticeable that in the earlier stage of the practicum the structure wins. Acknowledgements This study is part of a project funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) with the following reference: PTDC/DES/115922/2009. References Giddens A. (1984).

The Constitution of Society, Stanford, CA: Polity. Tannehill D, MacPhail A. (2012). What examining teaching metaphors tells us about preservice teachers’ developing beliefs about teaching and learning. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 1–15.


Redelius, K., Öhman, M., Quennerstedt, M.

The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences Throughout its history Physical Education (PE) has been regarded as a ‘practical’ subject, with a focus on doing gymnastics, sport or play.

Students generally think that the subject is important, but they have a hard time stating what they should learn in PE, and that does not only apply to students. Teachers too have difficulties articulating what the students are supposed to learn (Redelius, Fagrell & Larsson, 2009); (Quennerstedt, Öhman, Ericsson, 2008). The aim was to scrutinize how teachers frame the teaching in terms of whether the make

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the purpose and the learning outcomes explicit to their students or not. Central questions were: What aspects of learning do teachers articulate and highlight before the lessons? What aspects of learning do teachers articulate and highlight in the teaching, when presenting the content of the lesson to students? Methods The theoretical framework in which this study is grounded is a socio-cultural perspective on teaching and learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991). The participants were teachers and students from three secondary and three upper secondary schools in Sweden. The schools were located in three different cities spread out from north to south. In all, six PE-teachers and about 150 students participated in the study. At each school, at least three PE lessons were videotaped (in total 24 PE-lessons). In addition, six PE teachers and 24 students were interviewed. Results The analysis reveals that two of the teachers are both quite clear about the aims, purposes and outcomes of the lessons and they also communicate this to their students, two teachers express the aims, purposes and outcomes of the lessons in the pre interviews, but they did not communicate this to their students. The third group of teachers had difficulties in communicating learning outcomes with both in interviews and in front of the students. Discussion In the study the sociocultural perspective was used as a way to direct our attention towards how teachers situated and framed the lesson by communicating the purposes, aims and learning outcomes of the PE-lessons. The results show that if students are to understand what they are supposed to learn in PE, then teachers must communicate the learning goals to students. References Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press Quennerstedt, M, Öhman, M, Ericsson, C.

(2008) Physical Education in Sweden – a National Evaluation, Education-line: 2008, 1-17. Redelius, K., Fagrell, B. & Larsson, H. (2009) Symbolic capital in Physical Education: To be, to do or to know? That is the gendered question, Sport, Education and Society, 14(2), 245EFFECTS OF A SHORT-TERM SERVICE LEARNING EXPERIENCE ON PHYSICAL EDUCATION PRESERVICE TEACHERS’ CULTURAL COMPETENCY AND TEACHING SKILLS.

Peralta, L.R., O'Connor, D., Cotton, W.G., Bennie, A.

The University of Sydney Introduction Although service learning has the potential to address school and community needs while providing valuable learning experiences that enhance preservice teachers’ culturally responsive pedagogical skills (Buchanan, Baldwin, & Rudisill, 2002), not one service learning experience (SLE) has focused on preservice physical education (PE) teachers and Australian Indigenous students. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a community and school-based service learning experience (SLE) on preservice PE teachers’ cultural competency. Methods A mixed methodology approach was utilised. Final year preservice teachers enrolled in a core unit of study (n=56; age 21.9[8.3] years; 10.7% from low SES) were invited with 98% consenting to participate in a 6-week service learning experience. Measures included baseline and follow-up reflective journals (individual [n=55] and group [n=18]), multicultural teaching competency scales (n=55) and a follow-up focus group interview (n=8). Results Findings revealed that there were statistically significant increases in cultural competency (p=0.000), multicultural knowledge (p=0.000), and skills (p=0.000) from baseline to follow-up.

Qualitative analyses identified that preservice teachers were more able to appreciate cultural differences, challenge existing stereotypes, use a student-centred teaching style and design culturally relevant pedagogies and activities, set high expectations and link theory and practice, as a result of their participation in the SLE. Discussion These findings provide evidence that there are benefits such as improved cultural competency and teaching quality, and broadened perspectives through bridging the theory and practice divide, for preservice teachers experiencing service learning opportunities with Indigenous Australian youth. References Buchanan, A. M., Baldwin, S. C., & Rudisill, M. E. (2002). Service learning as scholarship in teacher education. Educational Researcher, 31(8), 30-36.


DURING A DECADE OF CHANGE IN ENGLAND, 2000-2010 Jung, H., Pope, S., Kirk, D.

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