FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstract, dissertation, book

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 164 | 165 || 167 | 168 |   ...   | 192 |

«Hosted by the: National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC) ISBN 978-84-695-7786-8 European College of Sport Science: Book of ...»

-- [ Page 166 ] --

Stiffness Index defined as the slope of relation between torque and lengthening of tissues, and Young Modulus Index as the index of material property were determined. The lengthenings of tissues were evaluated by B mode ultrasound images, during passive dorsiflexion for muscle tissues, and during isometric voluntary contractions for tendinous tissues. Two-dimensional kinematic analysis of race pace running was also applied with high speed VTR. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Morphological variables related to length and cross sectional area have no significant difference between HPG and NPG. The mechanical properties related to only tendinous tissues showed significant differences between HPG and NPG. The Stiffness Index and Young Modulus Index of tendinous tissues of HPG were more compliant by 40% (p0.01) and by 41% (p0.01) than those of NPG, respectively. However, no significant difference was observed in Induces of muscle tissue. The difference of not only Stiffness Index but also Young Modulus Index in tendinous tissues imply the difference in its material properties between HPG and NPG, which is originated in biomaterial composition like collagen type. In addition, HPG and NPG did not demonstrate significant difference in many kinematic variables such as joint angle changes and step frequencies, while HPG showed 8% larger step length, 12% shorter contact time, and 32% faster maximal angular velocity of plantar flexion in late contact phase significantly (p0.05). These results in the present study imply that compliant tendon affects effective elastic energy re-use and muscletendon interaction, and, thus, contributes to higher performance with large power output by ankle joint especially in late contact phase.

References Saltin B, Larsen H, Terrados N, Bangsbo J, Bak T, Kim CK, Svedenhag J, Rolf CJ. (1995) Scand J Med Sci Sports, 5, 209-21.


Schindelwig, K., Hasler, M., Van Putten, J., Knoflach, C., Nachbauer, W.

University Innsbruck Introduction In the past years, high speed sports such as speed skating, cycling and skiing were extensively studied from the aerodynamic point of view (Chowdhury et al., 2010; Oggiano et al. 2009). A number of authors previously studied how surface roughness affects the drag of cylinders. The acquisition of the drag data was always carried out in wind tunnel experiments. One important drawback of wind tunnel measurements is the high costs. In this study results of a novel measurement device allowing exact and economic studies are presented. Method The linear measurement system primarily consists of a 25 m long guidance beam and a cylinder with a height of 60 cm and a diameter of 15 cm mounted on a carriage. The carriage runs on the beam on a guideway on four rollers and is moved by a high torque electro motor via light fibre cables. The linear guidance system is located in a cooling chamber that can be adjusted in the range of -30°C to 30°C. The distance from the cylinder to the carriage is 40 cm. The horizontal forces between the carriage and the cylinder are measured with two load cells and the position of the carriage is determined by an inductive length measuring system. The cylinder was covered with 2 different textiles. The drag force on the cylinder was measured at velocities from 5 to 20 m/s with a step size of 1 m/s with the linear measurement system and in an aeroacustic wind tunnel (Audi, Ingolstadt, Germany). Every textile was tested 10 times at each speed with the linear measurement system to also assess the reliability of the system and 2 times in the wind tunnel.

Results There is a good agreement between the wind tunnel data and the linear measurement system. The mean range of the 10 linear measurements is +/-3.6%. The reliability of the linear system was high with a correlation of 0.92. The range of the calculated cd value at the different velocities was +/-2.4% with the linear system. In the wind tunnel experiments drag forces at the relevant velocities were in the range of +/-10%. Discussion The results of this work show that it is possible to determine the drag coefficient exactly with the new system. Especially at low velocities it is advantageous compared to automotive wind tunnels given the large velocity range required for the latter. Therefore in future it will be possible to analyze the effects of textile surfaces on the drag coefficient with a new, exact and economic method. References Chowdhury, Alam F, Subic A. (2010) Proc. Eng. 2, 2517-2522 Oggiano L, Troynikov O, Konopov I, Subic A, Alam F. (2009) Sports Eng. 12, 1-12


Preatoni, E., Stokes, K.A., England, M., Trewartha, G.

University of Bath Introduction The scrum is an important phase of the rugby union game. During the scrum, players experience very peculiar biomechanical demands (high forces coupled with unstable balance) and repetitive mechanical stresses (Milburn, 1990; Preatoni et al., 2013), which may be a factor for both acute injuries and chronic degeneration of the spine. Since physical condition and technique likely play a fundamental role for both performance and injury prevention, the aim of this study was to analyse the effects of playing level and engagement conditions on forces generated in scrummaging. Methods Force measures were analysed as a function of: 6 playing levels (International, Elite, Community, Academy, Women and School), and 5 different engagement conditions (Hit&Hold, 3-Stage, FoldIn, 7+1 and 5+3). The different engagement conditions were designed in part to modify the loading conditions on players. Thirty-four teams participated in the study and performed 4-8 machine scrummaging trials for each of the 5 engagement conditions. A commercial scrum machine (Dictator, Rhino Rugby, UK), equipped with a bespoke force measurement system (Preatoni et al., 2012) measured the compression, lateral and vertical forces generated by the scrum pack. A set of parameters was selected to analyse applied forces in the subsequent phases of the engagement, from initial shock absorption to the sustained push. A mixed design ANOVA was used to assess main effects between and within groups and the playing level-engagement condition interaction. Results During the shock-absorption phase: (i) peaks of force (in all three directions) were lower in the FoldIn engagement than in the other conditions, and (ii) International and Elite teams produced higher peak compression forces than the other categories. For example, peak compression force ranged between 8.6 (2.0) kN for International and 4.2 (0.8) kN for School in the FoldIn engagement, and between 16.5 (1.4) kN for International and 8.7 (0.1) kN for Women in the Hit&Hold. Sustained compression force ranged between 8.53 (0.69) kN (International, 5+3) and 4.37 (0.15) (Women, 3Stage), with greater sustained push for International and Elite, and the FoldIn engagement producing higher sustained compression force than the other conditions (significant for 3-Stage and 5+3). Discussion This study provides a more comprehensive picture of the influence of playing levels and engagement conditions on contemporary scrummaging biomechanics. It also informs practitioners and governing bodies about biomechanical factors that may influence performance and injury prevention. References Milburn PD. (1990). J Sports Sci, 8, 47-60. Preatoni E et al. (2012). P I Mech Eng P - J Sports Eng Tech, 226(3/4), 266-273. Preatoni E et al. (2013).

Scand J Med Sci Spor, DOI:

10.1111/sms.12048. Acknowledgement Research funded by the International Rugby Board

–  –  –


Gierlinger, G., Christian, J., Schwameder, H.

University of Salzburg Introduction Walking on graded slopes requires exertion of greater forces across lower extremity joints. In the course of walking downwards, the knee joint absorbs up to 70 percent of the total negative work. This work is predominantly performed by the leg extensor M.

quadriceps which is also expressed in the increasing tractive patella tendon and quadriceps force. When walking uphill, the rates of the performed work are equally balanced by the ankle, knee and hip joint (Schwameder et al., 2005). Despite increased attention to effects of inclination on human gait during the last years, many questions remain unresolved. On this account, this study has the main purpose of shedding further light on the muscular response to walking on various inclination levels and increased walking speed. Methods Twentysix healthy male students with average age, height and weight of 25.4 (±2.5) years, 178.9 (±6.5) cm and 75.4 (±9.2) kg respectively, volunteered to complete this study. All participants were instructed to walk up and downhill on a treadmill at 4, 8 and 12 degrees and at walking speeds of 1.0 and 1.3m/s. Muscle activity was recorded of tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SO), medial gastrocnemius (GA) and vastus (VA), medial (SM) and lateral hamstring (BF), rectus femoris (RF) as well as gluteus maximus (GL). Gait characteristics were obtained with Novel® Pedar insoles. Data was processed with a custom written Matlab® code and statistically analysed applying one-way ANOVA with repeated measures (Bonferroni, α=0.05). Results Significant differences were observed between ascending and descending inclination levels for all muscles regarding both mean activity and burst duration. During upslope walking, the mean activity of all muscles significantly and progressively increased from 4 to 12 degrees. GA revealed a significantly delayed activity onset and consequently decreased burst duration. With regard to BF, VA, RF and GL a significantly delayed offset and therefore increased burst duration was detected. However, when walking downwards the activity of BF set on significantly earlier while VA and RF revealed a tremendous increase in burst duration. The mean activity of VA and RF increased significantly at -8 and -12 compared to walking level. Between the walking speeds no significant differences were observed whether in terms of burst duration nor mean activity. Discussion The findings of the present study are in accordance with previously done research (Lay et al., 2007). It can be concluded that the extensor muscles namely SO, RF, GL, GA and VA responded most to the increase in inclination. TA, SM and BF however, served as co-contractors of the respective joints. When walking downhill, only the knee extensors absorbed the downwards moving body while the early onset of GA and BF evidently increases knee joint stability. References Lay A, Hass C, Nichols T, Gregor R. (2007). J Biom, 40(6), 1276-1285. Schwameder H, Lindenhofer E, Müller E. (2005). Sports Biom, 4(2), 227-243.


Kloskowska, P.1, Morrissey, D.1, Alty, J.2, Graham, J.1, Malliaras, P.1, Woledge, R.1 1: Queen Mary University of London, 2: Reading FC Background: Long-standing adduction-related groin pain (LSARGP) is common (Weir et al., 2011b). In football LSARGP accounts for 12%of all injuries (Ekstrand and Hilding, 1999, Werner et al., 2009). It is associated with high recurrence and prolonged time off sport (Weir et al., 2011a). Muscle activation and kinematic strategies in LSARGP are not well understood. The aim of this research was to better understand the kinematics and muscle activation in professional and amateur footballers with LSARGP. Methods: 20 professional (10 unilateral pain) and 19 male amateur (9 unilateral pain) footballers were recruited. Surface electromyography (sEMG) and 3D motion capture (CodaMotion) were applied during standing hip flexion (SHF). Analysis focused on gluteus medius (GM) versus adductor longus (AL) muscle activation ratio and kinematics of the hip joint in early, middle and end phase of SHF while standing on a symptomatic leg.

Results: GM vs AL ratio was significantly (p0.01) decreased in amateur but increased (p=0.02) in professional symptomatic athletes compared to matched control groups. Kinematic analysis of professionals with LSARGP showed increased abduction compared to control group, while symptomatic amateurs were more internally rotated and flexed compared to control group. Discussion: Opposite results in symptomatic professionals and amateurs might be explained by differences in rehabilitation. Professionals have access to treatment that might be focused on gluteal muscles, whereas amateurs may not all have rehabilitation and adopt alternative strategies to maintain pelvic stability. The results might also be explained by study limitations as participants were not matched nor controlled for symptoms chronicity or level. These findings have implications for rehabilitation of athletes with groin pain. References: EKSTRAND, J. & HILDING, J.

1999. The incidence and differential diagnosis of acute groin injuries in male soccer players. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 9, 98-103. WEIR, A., DE VOS, R. J., MOEN, M., HOLMICH, P. & TOL, J. L. 2011a. Prevalence of radiological signs of femoroacetabular impingement in patients presenting with long-standing adductor-related groin pain. Br J Sports Med, 45, 6-9. WEIR, A., JANSEN, J. A., VAN DE PORT, I. G., VAN DE SANDE, H. B., TOL, J. L. & BACKX, F. J. 2011b. Manual or exercise therapy for long-standing adductor-related groin pain: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Man Ther, 16, 148-54. WERNER, J., HAGGLUND, M., WALDEN, M. & EKSTRAND, J. 2009. UEFA injury study: a prospective study of hip and groin injuries in professional football over seven consecutive seasons. Br J Sports Med, 43, 1036-40.

08:30 - 10:00 Oral presentations OP-PM13 Molecular Biology [MB] 3



Velders, M., Beiter, T., Schumann, U., Hudemann, J., Schild, M., Mooren, F.C., Steinacker, J.M., Niess, A.M.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 164 | 165 || 167 | 168 |   ...   | 192 |

Similar works:

«film streams film streams Filme online streamen | maxdome.de Filme Blockbuster online sehen im maxdome Paket. Jetzt testen! Film Streaming Watch Movies Online Pro Watch Free Movies Online Pro Watch In Putlocker, Yify, Stream, Film in Streaming, Film en Streaming, Streaming hd, Yify Movies, vk Streaming, Yify Streaming Filme und Serien stream online schauen auf deutsch |Stream KinoGer.com-Kino Stream Kostenlos Filme stream online und Serien stream schauen auf deutsch, Online kino Stream,Filme...»

«Installing SQL-Ledger on Windows Requirements Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2000 or Windows Server 2003 WinZip Knowledge of simple DOS commands, i.e. CD, DIR, MKDIR, COPY, REN Steps Installing Apache HTTP Server 2.0.55 Installing ActivePerl 5.6.1 Installing DBD-Pg and DBI Installing PostgreSQL 8.0.4 (Part 1) Installing PostgreSQL 8.0.4 (Part 2) Installing SQL-Ledger 2.6.1 Updating HTTPD.CONF Setting Administrator Password and Creating First Dataset Installing Apache HTTP Server...»

«                                                                   Bilanz zum 31. Dezember 2014   DIERIG Holding AG, Augsburg Bericht des Aufsichtsrates Im Jahr 2015 feiert der Dierig-Konzern sein 210-jähriges Bestehen. Diese lange Zeit belegt die Solidität und Beständigkeit des Unternehmens und das Vermögen seiner Lenker, es in guten wie in schwierigen Zeiten auf Kurs zu halten. Dies gelang auch im abgelaufenen Geschäftsjahr....»

«© Ornithologische Gesellschaft Baden-Württemberg, download unter www.biologiezentrum.at 1997: Om.Jh.Bad.-Württ. 13, 221-227 Theodor von Heuglins Exkursion in Griechenland von Wilfried Schmid Theodor von Heuglin führte in der 2. Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts 5 Forschungsreisen in Nordost-Afrika und 2 im Nordpolarmeer durch. Seine herausragenden Leistun­ gen, gerade auch aus ornithologischer Sicht, hat er eindrucksvoll in zahlreichen Pu­ blikationen dokumentiert (Schm id 1997). Zwischen...»

«July 2014 CURRICULUM VITAE A. BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION 1. PERSONAL Phyllis D. Airhart 44 Charles St. W. Emmanuel College Suite 4210 75 Queen’s Park Cr. Toronto, ON M4Y 1R8 Toronto, ON M5S 1K7 416-927-9747 416-585-4536 Citizenship: Canadian 2. DEGREES PhD (awarded with distinction) 1985 University of Chicago “The Eclipse of Revivalist Spirituality: The Transformation of Canadian Methodist Piety, 1884-1925” Committee: Jerald C. Brauer (supervisor), Martin E. Marty, Arthur Mann MA 1980...»

«Direkt demokratins svårigheter En studie av den tyska Graswurzelrörelsen och dess organisation Graswurzelrevolution Föderation Gewaltfreier Aktionsgruppen (FöGA) Stellan Vinthagen Handledare: Rolf Thörnqvist C-uppsats i sociologi Göteborgs universitet Sociologiska institutionen, 1996. Stellan Vinthagen Direktdemokratins svårigheter InnehållsförteckningInnehållsförteckning SAMMANFATTNING 3 SYFTE OCH FRÅGESTÄLLNINGAR FEL! BOKMÄRKET ÄR INTE DEFINIERAT. METODDISKUSSION FEL!...»

«mongolia-travel-advice.com West Mongolia Visiting Tavan Bogd, Altai Mountains
 Disclaimer: The information in this guide is subject to the Tavan Bogd, Page 1 full disclaimer as detailed in the policies and terms of use Copyright mongolia-travel-advice.com at mongolia-travel-advice.com mongolia-travel-advice.com About West Mongolia Overview Lying some 1,600 kilometres from Ulan Bator, Mongolia’s beautiful Western region is a land unto itself. Wild, rugged, and stunningly beautiful, the West...»

«3. Трехкоординатный фрезерный обрабатывающий центр VMX 1 HURCO [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://itou.susu.ac.ru/index.php/-qq/78-vmx-1-hurco (дата обращения: 02.07.2014).4. Экономика предприятия [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://www.bibliotekar.ru/economika-predpriyatiyahtm (дата обращения: 05.07.2014). 5....»

«TAILINGS FEBRUARY EDITION Mailing Address: P.O. Box 3923, Chino Valley, Arizona 86323 www.prescottgemmineral.org ************************************************************************************************************************************* ******Organized to foster the development of amateur lapidary and jewelry craftsman, to foster an interest in mineral collecting, to present educational programs designed to improve knowledge, craft skill and to promote public interest in these areas....»

«CHAPTER SEVEN Death and Anti-Death, vol. 10: Ten Years After John Rawls, ch. 7, pp. 131-174. Our Global Problems And What We Need To Do About Them Nicholas Maxwell1 In this essay I argue that, in order to solve our grave global problems we need to bring about a revolution in our universities. First, however, I set out to depict the religious dimension to our problems. We need to revise our ideas about the nature of God. Cutting God in Half – And Putting the Pieces Together Again...»

«THE HAMPTON HANDBOOK ~ HOW THE TOWN OF HAMPTON WORKS, INCLUDING ALL BOARDS, COMMISSIONS & DEPARTMENTS Hampton Emergency Numbers FIRE EMERGENCY AMBULANCE EMERGENCY.911 POLICE EMERGENCY.911 TELEPHONE DIRECTORY Town Hall All Departments 926-6766 Marriage Licenses 926-0406 Ambulance Billing 929-5815 Marston School (Grades 3-4) 926-8708 Animal Control 929-4444 Motor Vehicle Registrations 926-0406 Assessments (property) 926-5837 Planning Board 929-5913 Birth Certificates 926-0406 Police...»

«Erstes Einfamilien-Passivhaus im Altbau Umsetzung des Passivhausstandards und -komforts in der Altbausanierung von Einfamilienhäusern am Beispiel EFH Pettenbach G. Lang, M. Lang, B. Krauß, E. Panic, H. C. Obermayr, R. Wimmer Berichte aus Energieund Umweltforschung 38/2007 Impressum: Eigentümer, Herausgeber und Medieninhaber: Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie Radetzkystraße 2, 1030 Wien Verantwortung und Koordination: Abteilung für Energieund Umwelttechnologien...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.abstract.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Abstract, dissertation, book

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.