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Pablo de Olavide University Introduction Until 2016, beach handball will not be an Olympic event, and information on the physical characteristics and the physiological demands of elite players is limited. Beach handball is a sport that places high physiological demands on players (dry beach sand, ground deformation, intermittent nature of the game) (Billat, 2003). To run or any type of movement in dry sand races may result in an increase of 1.6 times the energy cost (Lejeune et al., 1998). The involvement of anaerobic glycolysis is the main pathway of energy production. The aims of this study are to determine the relevance of lactate as performance limiter, the relationships between heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and lactate as predictors of the level of effort and the adaptation of the Course-Navette test for beach handball. Methods We examined the response of three variables (HR, blood lactate and RPE) in dry sand beach in beach handball players through an adapted Course-Navette and the maximum speed test (15 m). 12 players aged 21.4±3.87 years, weight of 79,68±13,87 kg, height of 1,78±0,07 meters and B.M.I. of 26,24±4,52 were subject to two tests conducted in dry sand. Their profile on the beach handball experience comes with 7.17±2.86 years in the sport; 26.42±11.34 games played in the summer season of 2010 and 6.46±1.71 hours per week training in conventional handball.
These data are consistent with other studies in real game situation in beach football (Castellano and Casamichana, 2010). The results yield evidence that the Beach Handball is a mixed performance sport with high participation of anaerobic metabolism and the consequent production of lactic acid. The outcomes may help coaches and sport scientists formulate better guidelines and recommendations for athlete assessment and selection, training prescription and monitoring and preparation for competition.
MONITORING RECOVERY DURING THE IN-SEASON COMPETITIVE PHASE IN ELITE SOCCER PLAYERSThorpe, R., Strudwick, A., Buchheit, M., Atkinson, G., Drust, B., Gregson, W.
Liverpool John Moores University Introduction Balancing the stress of training and competition with sufficient recovery is a fundamental challenge in the training process.
Therefore, knowledge about the effectiveness of non-invasive monitoring tools for assessing recovery status in athletes is paramount (Meeusen et al., 2006). Recovery markers should be sensitive to daily variability in training load, but research on elite team sport players is lacking (Buchheit et al., 2013). Therefore, our aim was to quantify the relationships between daily training load and a range of recovery indices in elite soccer players during the in-season competitive phase. Methods Training load (RPE-TRIMP, heart rate, total and highintensity distance and the number of accelerations), perceived ratings of fatigue, muscle soreness, sleep quality, counter-movement jump height (CMJ), post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR%) and heart rate variability (LnrMSSD) were measured daily in 10 elite soccer players across a 14-day period during the in-season competitive period. Within-subjects stepwise multiple regression models were used to evaluate the influence of fluctuation in training load markers on fluctuation in recovery indices. Results Variability in fatigue (r=0.40) and muscle soreness (r=0.38) were correlated to variability in total high-intensity distance and total distance covered measured on the previous days respectively (P0.001). Variability in sleep quality was correlated to the most training load markers; these being RPE-TRIMP (r=0.24; p=0.02), total distance (r-0.33 p=0.01) and high intensity distance (r=0.42; p0.001). Variability in HRR% and LnrMSSD were correlated to time above 80% HRmax (r=0.27; p=0.04) and the number of high accelerations (r=0.31; p=0.03) respectively. Correlations between variability in CMJ performance and all training load markers were negligible and not statistically significant. Discussion Perceived ratings of wellness, particularly sleep quality, along with heart rate recovery and heart rate variability were reasonably sensitive to daily fluctuations in training load experienced by elite soccer players. Therefore, these particular indices show the greatest promise for simple, non-invasive assessment markers of recovery status of elite soccer players during the in-season competitive phase References Buchheit M, Racinais S, Bilsborough J, Bourdon PC, Voss S, Hocking J., Cordy J, Mendez-Villanueva A., and Coutts A.J. (2013). Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Epub ahead of print. Meeusen R, Duclos M, Gleeson M, Rietjens G, Steinacker J and Urhausen A. (2006). Prevention, diagnosis and the treatment of the Overtraining Syndrome. European Journal of Sports Science, 6, 1–14.
08:30 - 10:00 Invited symposia IS-PM14 Hypoxia for health and fitness *
TRAINING IN HYPOXIA: DOES IT IMPROVE SEA-LEVEL PERFORMANCE?Rodríguez, F.A.
Institut Nacional d'Educació Física de Catalunya, University of Barcelona After more than four decades of research on the topic –many think that the few years before Mexico 1968 Olympics were the real beginning of it–, and more than 500 publications reported in PubMed and over 4,000 in Google Academics, altitude training effects on sealevel performance is a matter of live controversy. The first and only published meta-analytic review on this topic concluded –perhaps arguably by some– that the “enhancing protocols by appropriate manipulation of study characteristics produced clear effects with all protocols (3.5-6.8%) in subelite athletes, but only with [‘living high-training high’] LHTH (5.2%) and [‘living high-training low’] LHTL (4.3%) in elite athletes.” It also concludes that “in elite athletes, enhancement was possible with natural LHTL (4.0%; +/-3.7%), but unclear with other protocols”. Something definitely changed our views after the milestone work of Levine & Stray-Gundersen (1997). However, even the referenced paper summary includes expressions like ‘poor reporting’, ‘placebo, nocebo and training-camp effects’, ‘possible’, or ‘unclear’. On a very recent article (Lundby et al., 2012), a well recognised group of experts conclude that “Given that few studies have utilised appropriate controls, there should be more scepticism concerning the effects of altitude training methodologies”, and advocate for “wellcontrolled studies that will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of altitude training”. Therefore, controversy is served and perhaps ready to go on for a few more years. In this critical review, new results from a recent international research project which involved 65 elite swimmers from eight nations in four continents will be summarized and put into perspective. The aim will be to stimulate the debate and to emphasise some of the crucial aspects surrounding the controversy, such as the extrapolation from physiological variables to actual sports performance and how realistic it is to conduct robust ’gold standard’ experiments –such as randomized, double blind, controlled trials– immersed in the complex ‘ecological nest’ of elite sport. References Bonetti DL, Hopkins WG (2009). Sports Med, 39(2), 107-127. Levine BD, Stray-Gundersen J (1997). J Appl Physiol, 83(1), 102-112. Lundby C, Millet GP, Calbet JA, Bärtsch P, Subudhi AW (2012). Br J Sports Med, 46(11), 792-5.
OXYGEN: A POSIBLE TREATMENT FOR OBESITY?González-Muniesa, P.1,2, Quintero, P.1,3, Martínez, J.A.1,2
1. University of Navarra, 2. Carlos III Health Research Institute, 3. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Oxygen is indispensable for cell metabolism, and in turn, tissue oxygenation is essential for all normal physiological functions in most living creatures. Diseases as relevant as cancer, respiratory dysfunctions, and others, such as obesity (Trayhurn and Wood, 2004), are related with a poor tissue oxygenation. On the other hand, several studies have reported that appetite suppression and body weight loss are frequently observed at high altitude. Based on these findings, it has been hypothesized the possible applicability of hypoxia and hyperoxia for the treatment of obesity and related disorders (Quintero et al, 2010). Hyperoxia treatment (95% O2, 48 h) on mature murine adipocytes (3T3-L1) seems to produce an inflammatory response probably related to the release of ROS and the upregulation of proinflammatory adipokines, such as IL-6 and MCP-1. On the other hand, hyperoxia may have an indirect effect on insulin sensitivity due to the upregulation of PPAR-γ signaling as well as a possible modulation of both glucose and lipid metabolic markers, which is in agreement with Goosens and collaborators (Goossens et al, 2012). An intermittent hypoxia treatment was then tested (8% O2, 4 weeks of cycle hypoxia) on Wistar rats where a significant weight gain decrease was found compared to the normoxia group, unfortunately this loss was mainly of muscle tissue. At the moment, we are performing a trial with an acute hypoxia (15% O2) on obese patients practicing 2h of exercise simultaneously to the exposure to low oxygen levels (Urdampilleta et al, 2012). This project is funded by the EXPLORA Subprogramme, MICINN, Spain (SAF2010-11630-E). This new strategies may be useful and practical for clinical applications in obese patients. References 1. Trayhurn P, Wood IS. (2004). Br J Nutr, 92, 347-55. 2. Quintero P, Milagro FI, Campión J, Martínez JA. (2010). Med Hypotheses, 74, 901-7. 3. Goossens GH, Bizzarri A, Venteclef N, Essers Y, Cleutjens JP, Konings E, Jocken JW, Cajlakovic M, Ribitsch V, Clément K, Blaak EE. (2011). Circulation, 124, 67-76. 4. Urdampilleta A, González-Muniesa P, Portillo MP, Martínez JA. (2012). J Physiol Biochem, 68, 289-304.
08:30 - 10:00 Oral presentations OP-PM01 Adapted Physical Activity [AP] 1
BRISK WALKING INCREASES BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN CART-PATIENTSBonato, M., Bossolasco, S., Galli, L., Mandola, S., Pavei, G., Testa, M., Bertocchi, C., Galvano, E., Balconi, G., Lazzarin, A., Merati, G., La Torre, A., Cinque, P.
Università degli Studi di Milano, San Raffaele Scientific Institute Introduction In the general population, moderate intensity aerobic activity reduces the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and may prevent bone loss. We evaluated the effects of brisk walking, with or without strength exercise, on bone mineral density in HIVinfected treated persons. Methods Thirty-four HIV-infected, cART-treated, sedentary subjects with were enrolled in a 12-week exercise program, consisting of 3 outdoor sessions/week of 60 min walking at 65-75% of HR (heart rate) max ± 30 min circuit training at 65% of 1
RM (Repetition Maximum). Subjects were examined at baseline (BL) and 12 weeks (W12) by 6-minute walking test (6MWT), 1-RM test; and by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to evaluate lumbar spine and femoral bone mineral density, and t- and z-scores, in addition to morphometric (BMI, waist, hip and legcircumference) and bloodexamination (cytometry, fastingtotal, HDL and LDL cholesterol, tryglicerides, glucose, insulin; AST/ALT, ALP, gGT, creatinine, CPK, HbA1c; CD4+ and CD8+, plasma HIV-RNA). Differences between BL and W12 were tested by Wilcoxon-signed rank test. Results Thirty-two of 34 (94%) participants completed the 12-week program with a median adherence of 64% (IQR 56-77). They were 25M, 7F; median 48 y-o, IQR 44-54. Twenty patients were enrolled in the ’walk” group and 12 in the ’walk and strength’ group. At W12, participants showed significant improvement of distance by 6MWT (p0.0001), and of performance in all strength exercises (crunch p= 0.0015, lat machine p= 0.001, chest press p= 0.0029, leg extension p= 0.0303, sitting calf p= 0.0015, leg press p= 0.0024). DEXA spine z-score improved significantly in the whole group (p=0.0222) and in the walk strength group (p= 0.0469), and femoral z-scores in the ’walk’ only group (p=0.0319). At W12 BMI, waist circumference, and LDL were also significantly improved in the whole group, whereas no significant changes were observed for the other variables. Discussion The above 12-week program of brisk walkimg, with or without strength exercise, improved fitness and bone density in HIV-infected treated subjects, in addition to some morphometric variables and serum LDL. This kind of moderate intensity exercise might help control the long-term consequences of cART on bone metabolism. References Gregory et al 2009 Am J Lifestyle Med