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«Hosted by the: National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC) ISBN 978-84-695-7786-8 European College of Sport Science: Book of ...»

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CONSIDERING TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMATOLOGY: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY INVOLVING

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

Vachon, H.1, Thomas-Ollivier, V.1, Sauvaget, A.2, Vanelle, J.M.2, Fortes-Bourbousson, M.1 1: UFR STAPS, Université de Nantes, 2: CHU, Nantes Introduction Numerous studies highlight the effect of physical activity (PA) on depressive symptoms (for a review, see Mead et al., 2008).

However, most of these studies only compared changes of psychological variables before and after PA programs. Such nomothetic approaches are limited to precisely characterize the role of PA on psychological functioning (Ninot et al., 2005). To go beyond, the Ecological Momentary Assessment (Shiffman et al., 2008) permits to assess within-subject psychological variations in the individual life’s context and so to capture psychological variations due to exercise as soon as they occur. Because depressive symptomatology refers to a large spectrum, five psychological dimensions strongly implicated in depressive disorder were assessed: global self-esteem, rumination, anxiety, quality of life and depression. The purpose of this study is to identify the temporal evolution of depressive symptomatology when individuals are submitted to constraints in everyday life and to investigate the effect of a PA program. Methods Three groups participated to this study: control subjects without physical activity (GC; n=8), depressed patients without physical activity (GD; n=8) and depressed patients with physical activity (GDPA; n=8). All subjects self-evaluated through a short questionnaire assessing self-esteem, rumination, anxiety, quality of life and depression, twice a day during three months. GDPA participated to supervised exercises (active walking) for a one-hour session three times per week, during three months. Analysis of variance was performed on descriptive statistics (mean, SD, range), probability of acute change (PAC), and mean square successive difference (MSSD). Results Supervised physical activity is in progress and results of GDPA will be presented at the ECSS conference. Significant differences between GC and GD were observed for the five dimensions regarding mean (p0,001), standard-deviation (pDep;Rum;Anx0,001; pGSE;QoL0,05), MSSD (p0,001; pGSE0,05) and PAC (p0,001; pGSE0,05). Discussion The effect of PA will be discussed through two orientations. First, we will identify if groups are different only when considering psychological variable levels (e.g. self-esteem means) or also for criteria considering temporal variability.

Second, we will discuss if PA affects each variable in similar way or if some psychological dimensions are more influenced. References Mead, G.E., Morley, W., Campbell, P., Greig, C.A., McMurdo, M., and Lawlor, D.A. (2008). Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 4. Shiffman, S., Stone, A.A., and Hufford, M.R. (2008). Ann Rev Clin Pyschol, 4, 1-32. Ninot, G., Fortes, M., & Delignières, D. (2005). J Psychol, 139, 315-330.

18:00 - 19:30 Oral presentations OP-PM42 Sports Medicine [SM] 3

EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXERCISE-TRAINING ON TISSUE DOPPLER INDICES OF LEFT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC FUNCTION IN OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE INDIVIDUALS.

Millen, A.M.E., Norton, G.R., Avidon, I., Woodiwiss, A.J.

University of the Witwatersrand Background: Exercise training has consistently been shown to be unable to improve obesity-associated decreases in left ventricular (LV) diastolic function as assessed using chamber rather than myocardial function measurements. However, the effect of exercise training on LV diastolic myocardial function as assessed using Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) is uncertain. Methods: In the present study in 32 overweight (n=11) or obese (n=21), sedentary or recreationally active men and women (30–57years), we aimed to assess the effect of 6 weeks of exercise training either preceded (n=16) or followed (n=16) by a 6 week control period on TDI-derived parameters of LV diastolic function (e’, e’/a’ and E/e’) (echocardiography). Results: Baseline measures of diastolic function were comparable with those noted in overweight and obese participants from a community sample (n=245) and 56% (n=18) had baseline e’ values (early diastolic abnormalities) that were below the lower 95% confidence intervals of a lean and healthy cohort (n=60) of the community sample. Exercise training increased peak oxygen consumption from 27.4±4.9 to 29.4±5.8 mL.kg-1.min-1 (p=0.0001); but had no effect on body mass index (p=0.99). No changes in TDI indices of LV diastolic function were observed after exercise training in all participants (e’: p=0.74, a’: p=0.98, e’/a’: p=0.85; E/e’: p=0.26), in participants with abnormal e’ values (n=18)(e’: p=0.99, a’: p=0.96, e’/a’: p=0.91; E/e’: p=0.97) or in obese participants only (n=21)(e’: p=0.67, a’: p=1.00, e’/a’: p=0.78; E/e’: p=0.11). Conclusion: Exercise training alone, despite producing an improved cardiorespiratory fitness is unable to improve obesity-associated decreases in LV diastolic myocardial function.

CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS AND RISK OF SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH IN NORTH AMERICAN MEN AND WOMEN. A

PROSPECTIVE STUDY

Jiménez-Pavón, D., Artero, E.G., Lee, D.C., España-Romero, V., Sui, X., Pate, R., Church, T., Lavie, C.J., Moreno, L.A., Blair, S.N.





University of Zaragoza INTRODUCTION Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is recognized as a relevant cause of death within the general population. Moreover, a good cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) level is associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality in adults. However, little is known about the association of CRF and SCD. The present study was conducted (1) to examine the relation between CRF and SCD in a large population of adults. (2) To study the specific roles of hypertension, obesity and health status on the previous relationship. METHODS The current report is based on prospective data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). A total of 55,456 individuals (13,507 women) with a mean age of 44.2 years, whose baseline examination took place between 1974 and 2002 were included in the study. The CRF was

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assessed by a maximal treadmill test using a modified Balke protocol and categorized as low, moderate and or high according to gender- and age-specific distributions of maximal exercise duration from the ACLS population. The baseline assessment included an extensive physical examination and an array of clinical measurements such as age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, current smoking, alcohol intake, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, abnormal electrocardiogram, cancer and parental history of cardiovascular disease. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios, 95% confidence intervals according to CRF categories after adjustments for the baseline assessment. RESULTS There were 109 deaths from SCD (average follow-up of 14.7 years). An inverse risk of SCD was found across CRF levels after adjustments for potential confounders. Participants in the middle and upper CRF levels had 43% and 48% significantly lower risk of SCD, respectively, compared with those in the lower level in the multivariateadjusted model (p 0.001). The risk of SCD was 14% lower per 1-MET increase in the fully-adjusted model. Those participants identified as hypertensive, overweight or unhealthy and with moderate or high CRF levels had lower risks of SCD that ranged from 59% to 72% compared with those with the same medical conditions and low CRF. DISCUSSION The risk of SCD in men and women can be significantly attenuated by ensuring moderate to high CRF, and this benefit is independent of other risk factors. A highlight is that in particularly vulnerable groups such as hypertensive, obese or unhealthy individuals this protective effect of CRF may substantially lower the risk of SCD.

CRF testing should be considered for SCD risk screening in asymptomatic men and women.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CARDIO-RESPIRATORY FITNESS, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND ARTERIAL STRUCTURE AND COMPLIANCE IN CHILDREN

Böhm, B., Elmenhorst, J., Müller, J., Barta, C., Oberhoffer, R.

Technische Universität München OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis can begin early in life [1] with endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and wall thickening, whereas functional impairment is considered to be the earliest detectable manifestation. Evidence suggests that exercise enhances endothelial function in subjects with impaired function [3], also demonstrated in obese children, where exercise training enhances NO-mediated vasodilatation [2]. However, the complex mechanism between cardio-respiratory fitness, physical activity, endothelial function and structure is not yet fully understood in healthy children and investigations on possible relationships are rare. METHODS: 119 children (53 girls) with median age of 12.3 years; (interquartile range (IQR) 11.9 – 12.9 years) and median body mass index standard deviation score of 0.06 (IQR -0.93 were examined. Children had high-resolution ultrasound sonography (ProSound, Hitachi/Aloka) on the A. carotis communis measuring intima-media thickness (cIMT), arterial compliance (AC) and stiffness (ß index). Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured at the A. brachialis using a continuous eTRACKING mode, analyzing changes in blood flow velocity and arterial diameter at baseline, after 5 minutes of ischemia and 3 minutes after vasodilatation. Cardio-respiratory fitness was tested by a symptom limited pulmonary exercise

test on a bicycle ergometer (Ganshorn Medical). Physical activity was assessed using GT3x accelerometer (Actigraph, USA). RESULTS:

Physical fitness (peak VO2) was inversely correlated to carotid (r=-0.246, p=0.012) and brachial (r=-0.208; p=0.036) stiffness indices. Time in sedentary lifestyle was inversely correlated to carotid AC (r=-0.210; p=0.034); time in high intensive activity levels was negatively correlated with the brachial stiffness index (r=-0.286; p=0.004). No significant relations between cIMT and physical fitness as well as physical activity exposed. Regarding brachial endothelial function girls revealed higher (p=0.004) arterial stiffness and lower arterial compliance (p= 0.004) than boys. Furthermore, girls spent less time (p=0.001) in moderate activity than boys. CONCLUSIONS: This research is suggestive of the fact that cardio-respiratory fitness and physical activity are associated with arterial function but not with arterial structure. Girls seem to be at higher cardiovascular risk than boys due to less physical activity, demonstrating higher arterial stiffness and lower compliance. Further research need to clarify the mechanisms of early arterial (dys)-function and the impact of exercise intensity on them. [1] Tuzcu EM et al. Circulation 2001; 103, 2705-2710 [2] Woo KS et al. Circulation 2004; 109:1981-6 [3] Green DJ et al. J Physiol 2004; 561:1-25

EFFECT OF EXERCISE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY COUNSELLING ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS

Mann, S., Beedie, C., Allgrove, J., Jimenez, A.

University of Greenwich Background: Little research has examined fitness centres as hubs for community interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA) and reducing cardiovascular (CV) risk. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of fitness centre based interventions; unstructured (FREE) / structured exercise (STRUC) and physical activity counselling (PAC). Methods: Participants (n=105, 73 female) were recruited for either PAC (n=18-age=44.5±4.96) or fitness centre based exercise (FREE=44-age=42.5±4.89 STRUC=43-age43.39±4.27). Participants underwent assessments measuring; predicted maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), body composition, blood pressure (BP), cholesterol profile, resting heart rate (RHR) and muscular strength (predicted one-rep max (1RM)), before and after a 12 week intervention period.

Participants received accelerometers. Results: Significant (P0.05) improvements were found in systolic-BP (PAC: 132 – 129 vs FREE: 130 – 125 vs STRUC: 137 – 130 mmHg), body fat mass (PAC: 34.32 – 32.06 vs FREE: 28.48 – 26.73 vs STRUC: 32.85 – 30.85 kg), total cholesterol (PAC: 4.97 – 4.68 vs FREE: 4.46 – 4.35 vs STRUC: 4.85 – 4.82 mmol/L, RHR (PAC: 80 – 71 vs FREE: 71 – 67 vs STRUC: 78 – 73 bpm) and leg press strength (PAC: 91 – 126 vs FREE: 90 – 135 vs STRUC: 93 – 140 1RM kg) in all three groups. Significant differences were found between groups in chest press (PAC: 40.93 – 41.84 vs FREE: 43.77 – 48.45 vs STRUC: 39.01 – 48.89 1RM kg), lat pull down (PAC: 50.94 – 56.5 vs FREE: 54.68 – 61.15 vs STRUC: 52.08 – 60.82 1RM kg), and diastolic-BP which improved significantly in STRUC only (PAC: 80 – 80 vs FREE: 74 – 74 vs STRUC: 83 – 79 mmHg). Weekly energy expenditure increased significantly in all three groups; STRUC was the only group to produce a significant correlation between week and energy expended (r=0.91 P0.01). Conclusion: Fitness centre based interventions increased the PA levels of participants and improved CV risk factors. Fitness centres may be able to provide community hubs to increase PA and reduce CV risk.

LONG-TERM EFFECT OF A PHYSICAL ACTIVE LIFESTYLE ON ARTERIAL STIFFNESS IN SAPALDIA 3

Endes, S., Caviezel, S., Dratva, J., Schindler, C., Schaffner, E., Gaspoz, J.M., Rochat, T., Kuenzli, N., Probst-Hensch, N., Schmidt-Trucksaess, A.

Institute of Exercise and Health Sciences Introduction: Lack of physical activity (PA) is one condition that is associated with increased arterial stiffness, and consequently with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, this study aimed at analysing the association between PA at baseline and arterial stiffness assessed by the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) after a mean follow-up time of 8.34 yrs. Methods: CAVI was measured in the second follow-up of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA 3) using a VaseraVS-1500

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