«Hosted by the: National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC) ISBN 978-84-695-7786-8 European College of Sport Science: Book of ...»
Institution of health sciences Introduction Sport involvement has the potential both to improve and to inhibit youth’s moral attitudes and behaviour. However, whether the path of development is positive or negative is largely dependent on the structure of their sport environment. Since coaches are one of the most salient socialization agents, variations in coaching approaches are thought to influence the direction of youth moral development. We therefore hypothesized that coach initiated prosocial feedback (CIPF) would positively be related to self-reported prosocial behavior (PB). Moreover, since variations in perceived motivational climate have shown to be associated with character building qualities, we hypothesized that different aspects of motivational climate would mediate the relation between CIPF and PB. Methods Longitudinal data were collected at two occasions (1 year between T1 and T2) including 808 Swedish youth sport participants (60% boys and 40% girls;
M=13.9 years at baseline). The CIPF scale (T1) included five items (e.g., “My coach/coaches use to talk with us about the importance to obey rules”). Moreover, shortened versions of Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (Newton, Duda & Yin, 2000) and Prosocial Tendencies Measure (Carlo & Randall, 2002) were used to measure PMC (at T2) and PB (at T2) respectively. Mediation analyses with bootstrapping approach was conducted using the INDIRECT macro for SPSS. Results The path between CIPF and mastery oriented climate (MMC) was positive and significant (B=.10, SE=.03, p.05), as well as the path between MMC and PB (B=.21, SE=.04, p.01).
Moreover, both the total effect (B=.09, SE=.03, p.01), and direct effect (B=.07, SE=.03, p.05), of CIPF on PB were significant. More importantly, the bootstrap analyses demonstrated significant indirect effects (αβ=.02, SE=.01, p.05) showing a mediating effect of MMC in the relationship between CIPF and PB. Significant paths for performance oriented climate (PMC) were only found in relation to PB (B=-.17, SE=.04, p.01). However, the indirect effect of PMC was not significant. Discussion Results from this study show that sport may have beneficial effects on youth’s moral behaviour, both directly (i.e., having coaches discussing and promoting prosocial behaviors), and indirectly by influencing a MMC. Moreover, results indicate that endorsing a PMC will reduce youth’s tendencies to act in a prosocial manner. Our study also highlights the important role of the coach when forming a sport environment that either facilitates or debilitates youth’s moral development. References Carlo G, Randall BA. (2002). J Youth Adolesc,31, 31-44. Newton M, Duda J L, & Yin Z. (2000). J Sports Sci, 18, 275-290.
QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF A SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY-BASED INTERVENTION IN SCHOOL TO PROMOTE
PHYSICAL ACTIVITYGonzález-Cutre, D., Montero-Carretero, C., Beltrán-Carrillo, V.J., Sierra, A.C., Cervelló, E.
Centro de Investigación del Deporte. Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche Introduction Interventions to promote physical activity and its associated benefits are necessary from early ages, being the school and excellent environment to achieve this goal (Biddle et al., 2004). Self-determination theory (SDT) has been useful for the development of motivational strategies applicable to this type of interventions (Fortier et al., 2012). The purpose of this study was to analyze, from a qualitative perspective, the effects of a school-based intervention centered in satisfying the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness, and to develop positive motivation for the promotion of physical activity in adolescents. Methods The intervention was carried out with students in the last course of secondary school (15-16 years old), through a teaching unit in physical education (PE) for the promotion of physical activity and health (15 sessions); a voluntary extracurricular physical activity program of 6 months (three sessions of one hour per week); and three meetings with parents. The PE intervention and the physical activity program were conducted by two different teachers with training in the use of motivational strategies based on SDT. To analyze the intervention effects, a content analysis was carried out with the data coming from the following qualitative techniques: two focus groups with the students who showed the highest assistance rate to the physical activity program; a focus group with parents; and the research diary of the teacher of the physical activity program. Results The results showed the adolescents’ satisfaction of basic psychological needs during the intervention, highlighting the need for relatedness. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation and identified regulation in PE and in the extra-curricular physical activity program was observed. The intervention produced the following positive effects: enjoyment and satisfaction, learning and personal improvement, and in some cases physical activity adherence. The effects were associated to the use of different motivational strategies. Discussion This study provides support for the use of SDT to design and implement interventions to promote physical activity (Fortier et al., 2012). Some strategies related to the intervention effectiveness were identified: students’ participation in the decision making process; autonomy support for the participation in physical activity; novelty and variety in tasks; positive feedback centered in personal improvement; music use; teachers’ involvement and caring climate. References Fortier MS, Duda JL, Guerin, E, Teixeira PJ (2012). Int J Behav Nutr Phys Activ, 9, 20. Biddle SJH, Gorely T, Stensel DJ (2004). J Sports Sci, 22, 679-701.
MOTIVATION IN ADOLESCENTS’ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF TWO EUROPEAN COUNTRIESAibar, A.1,2, Zaragoza, J.1, Generelo, E.1, Nicaise, V.3, Paillard, T.2, Bois, J.E.2 ¹University of Zaragoza (Huesca, Spain) ² University of Pau and Countries of Adour (Tarbes, France) 3 University Claude Bernard (Lyon, France) Introduction Self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) has become a usual theoretical approach in order to understand the motivational factors that influence physical activity (PA; Teixeira et al, 2012). However, there remain some inconsistencies according to the relations between specific SDT constructs and PA (Teixeira et al., 2012). This study was aimed to improve the knowledge of motivational factor’s impact on adolescent’s PA of two European countries (France and Spain). Method The sample consisted of 806 adolescents (51% Spanish) with a mean age of 14.33±0.73 years. Objective PA was measured during a 7-day period by the GT3X accelerometer and subjective PA by the Assessment of PA Levels Questionnaire. The Sport Motivation Scale was used to measure PA motivation. After confirmatory factor analysis, four motivational latent variables (intrinsic, identified, introjected and external regulation) were included. A structural equation model (SEM) was built where motivational variables predicted subjective PA, which in turn predicted objective PA. Gender and age served as control variables. A multi-group analysis for testing measurement invariance across groups (Spain-France) was conducted. Mplus Version 6.1. was used to conduct all analysis. Results The SEM revealed good fit to the proposed model (?2(325, N=806) = 988.47, p.001; CFI=.91, TLI:.89, RMSEA=.071, SRMR=.061). The subjective PA was found to positively predict objective PA. Whilst intrinsic and introjected motivation were significant predictors of subjective PA, external motivation showed a negative association. Relations between latent variables and observed variables were invariant across countries. Discussion More intrinsic levels of motivation were found to predict subjective PA (Barbeau et al., 2009). Despite the introjected regulation showed also positive associations, the strength of this association were lower compared to intrinsic regulation. Agreeing with the current literature (Teixeira et al., 2012), a negative association between external regulation and PA was revealed. These findings support the premises of SDT (Ryan & Deci, 2000).
References Barbeau, A. Sweet, S.N. & Fortier, M. (2009). A path-analytic model of self-determination theory in a physical activity context. J Appl Biobehav Res, 14(3), 103-118. Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78. Teixeira, P.J., Carraça, E.V., Markland, D., Silva, M.N., & Ryan, R.M.
(2012). Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review. IJBNPA 9:78
EXPLORING STIGMATISATION OF EATING DISORDERS IN SPORTMcArdle, S., Meade, M.M., Moore, P., Madigan, S., MacManus, C.
1: DCU (Dublin, Ireland), 2: UUJ (Jordanstown, Ireland), 3: MMU/IIS(Manchester, England; Dublin, Ireland), 4: IIS (Dublin, Ireland), 5: IIS (Dublin, Ireland) Introduction Recent studies have shown that stigma is the most significant perceived barrier to help seeking for young athletes (Gulliver, Griffiths, & Christensen, 2012). Stigmatising attitudes towards individuals with eating disorders have been found to exist in the general population and in more targeted populations such as professionals working in mental health care (Roehrig & McLean, 2010; ThompsonBrenner, Satir, Franko & Herzog, 2012). Little is known about the beliefs or attitudes of support staff working in the sport context towards eating disorders. Identifying the nature of stigmatizing attitudes associated with eating disorders in support staff is important in informing the implementation of initiatives targeted at stigma reduction. The aim of this study was to explore stigmatizing attitudes towards athletes with eating disorders amongst support staff in sport. Methods A mixed methods design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. One hundred and fifty coaches, sport nutritionists, sport dieticians, physiotherapists and strength and conditioning coaches were recruited to complete an on-line survey. Participants read four vignettes describing athlete specific cases of Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Depression and Burnout and answered questions assessing stigma toward athletes with these four problem areas. Follow-up qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 support staff specifically targeted at exploring stigmatising attitudes towards athletes with eating disorders. Results While many of the attitudes expressed by service providers and coaches were generally positive, some negative attitudes were also apparent. Qualitative interviews allowed further exploration of stigmatizing attitudes in sport personnel and the ways in which stigma extended into language use and behaviour. Discussion Results support the need to adopt a system approach to target stigma reduction towards eating disorders in sport. Support staff need to be aware of the subtle ways stigma influences their language and their approach to working with athletes with eating disorders. References Gulliver, A., Griffiths, K. M., & Christensen, H. (2012). Barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking for young elite athletes: a qualitative study, BMC Psychiatry, 12, 157. Roehrig, J. P., & McLean, C. P. (2010). A comparison of stigma toward eating disorders versus depression. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 43, 671–674. Thompson-Brenner, H., Satir, D. A., Franko, D., I., & Herzog, D. B. (2012). Psychiatric Services, 63, 73-78.
MOTIVATION, BODY WEIGHT CONTROL AND PHYSICAL EXERCISE: EVALUATION BETWEEN MEN AND WOMENRosa, J.P.P.1,2, Lira, F.S.1,2, Lima, G.H.O.2, Silva, E.A.1,2, Rodrigues, D.F.1,2, Lemos, V.A.1,2, Tufik, S.1,2, De Mello, M.T.1,2 Universidade Federal de São Paulo Introduction: Adherence to a regular physical exercise programme involves a number of factors that might influence the adoption and maintenance of the regular practise of physical activity. This study evaluated body weight control and its effect on the levels of motivation.
Methods: 39 volunteers (16 men’s and 23 women’s) who were grouped by BMI into normal weight (NW n=16), overweight (OW n= 15) and obese (OB n=8) groups. A Bod Pod® device was used to establish the body mass of each participant with means Age (years) 34.2±8.77, Height (cm) 166.46±8.64, Weight (kg) 68.59±24.30 and BMI (kg/m²) 24.62±8.09. Level of motivation to begin a programme of physical exercise were assessed via a translated version of the BREQ-2 (Markland D, Tobin VA,2004) and IMPRAF-54 (Barbosa MLL, Balbinotti AAM., 2006). Results: Male participants tended to have greater body weights (p0.01), heights (p0.01), amotivation scores (p0.01) and competitiveness scores (p0.01) compared with females. Females exhibited a higher percentage of body fat (p0.01) than males. Comparisons among the participants according to the BMI group (NW,OW.OB) to which they belonged. Significant positive correlations between BMI and the stress control (r=0.30; p0.05) and competitiveness (r=0.40; p0.05) dimensions of the IMPRAF were found, as was a significant negative correlation between BMI and the health dimension of the IMPRAF (r=-0.36; p0.05). There were also positive correlations between the body fat percentage, stress control (r=0.39; p0.05) and competitiveness (r=0.45; p0.05) dimensions of the IMPRAF.
The external regulation scores from the BREQ-2 were negatively correlated with the IMPRAF stress control scores (r=-0.41; p0.05), and the BREQ-2 scores for introjected and intrinsic regulation were positively correlated with the IMPRAF competitiveness (r=0.39; p0.05) and stress control scores (r=0.42; p0.05) Discussion: Males were less motivated by external influences, females had a stronger tendency to let emotional matters affect their level of involvement in physical exercise programmes. Cognitive-behavioural strategies are needed to increase and maintain the frequency or intensity of an exercise regimen, regardless of BMI (Dalle Grave et al.,2011). These strategies are
necessary because the regular practise of physical activity can result in countless physical and mental benefits for human beings.(De Mello et al., 2005). References: Markland D, Tobin VA. (2004). J Sport and Exerc Psychol.; 26, 191-196. Barbosa MLL, Balbinotti AAM. (2006) Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Dalle Grave R, et.al.(2011). J Obes. ID 348293. de Mello MT et.al (2005). Rev bras med esporte [online].11(3), 203-207.