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«Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktoringenieurin (Dr.-Ing.) von: Yashodhan Pramod Gokhale geboren am: 05. October 1981 in Pune, ...»

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In this thesis, there is some data that shows deviation from existing theory. Based on this fact, few suggestions and recommendations have been made to improve the result in future research. The synthesis of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles can be done by using different functional groups of dispersants with varying conditions. In future, simulation and modeling of the kinetics of the reaction can be achieved with additional interaction of the colloidal system. Also, DLVO theory can be put to use in the form of kernels for solving population balance equations. Steric stabilization effect and Van der Waals forces can be utilized in a form of physical kernel for different oxide nanomaterials.

There is scope for more work in the area of silver nanoparticles. Shear experiments can be done to determine the various flow characteristics of nano powder. A model for agglomeration, disintegration and growth of nanosized silver could be developed such that it describes the influence of flow additives on interparticle adhesion forces. A further objective is to apply the cell average technique for solving different physico-chemical kernels for silver nanoparticles. Developing a large-scale method based on the model for preparation of nanosized silver particles is a perspective goal.

While applying models to design the nano process and simulating their colloidal interactions, the most valuable lesson to remember is that these are models that are generated by computers. Models seldom mirror reality; in fact they often may succeed in spite of not being completely close to reality. Models are not usually designed to simulate reality but they are designed to produce results that agree with experiment. There are many approaches that produce such results. These approaches may not always encompass factors operating in real environments.

In the end however, it is experiment that is of paramount importance for building the model.

Inaccurate experimental data with uncertain error margins will undoubtedly hinder the success of every subsequent step in model building. Therefore, generating, presenting and evaluating accurate experimental data are the responsibilities that need to be shouldered by both nano chemists and engineers. It is only a fruitful and synergistic alliance between the two groups that can help overcome the complex challenges in nano process design.

Appendix A. Shear Rate Calculation Reaction conditions for titanium dioxide nanoparticles as shown below.

–  –  –

Calculation of volume fraction The concentration of Nitric acid being used for all conducted experiments is 0.1 M. It means there are 0.1 mol of HNO3 inside one liter of solution. Since the total volume of solution being taken are only 141 ml, then only 0.0141 mol of acid exists.

–  –  –

Those calculations above are only showed for number of revolutions of stirrer at 500 min-1.

The same procedure can be followed for converting the rest of speed variation summarized in the Table A.1

–  –  –

B. Disintegration function from normalized cumulative disintegration function.

The primary cumulative disintegration distribution function has the form first proposed by Austin as given in Eq.5.22. The normalized cumulative disintegration distribution function for the formation of particles of volume x when a particle of size y breaks, is defined as

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