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«Project management: Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH (dena) – German Energy Agency Project partners: 50Hertz Transmission GmbH, ABB AG, Amprion GmbH, ...»

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As part of system control, system operators are responsible for monitoring and, where necessary, controlling the electricity grid and all connected generation units to guarantee safe operation of the overall system. The responsibilities of the transmission system operators include organising the use of balancing energy to maintain the frequency, voltage control and congestion management in the transmission grid as well as coordinate the grid re-establishment after failures. In their respective grids, the distribution system operators are responsible for voltage control, congestion management, elimination of local faults and the system restoration coordinated by the transmission system operators, and support the measures of upstream system operators.

Development of the system control requirements.

With the increasing integration of volatile renewable energy sources, primarily at the distribution grid level, the increased provision of ancillary service products in the distribution grid, the planned hybrid structure of the transmission grid comprising alternating current and direct current, and the increasingly multi-regional exchange of energy in the European electricity market, the requirements for system control of the electricity grids are growing at all voltage levels.

Due to the rising number of decentralised energy units, largely connected to the electricity distribution grids, the need for information and control in grid operation to guarantee system stability is also growing.

It is expected that in future, an increasing number of innovative operating equipment (e.g. voltage regulated transformers in distribution grids or SVC in transmission grids) will be used to facilitate a costefficient expansion of the electricity distribution and transmission grids in Germany. There are also various technical options, e.g. overhead line monitoring and load flow control via FACTS 7, which can be used to guarantee optimised operation of the grid.

With a further dynamic expansion of the fluctuating renewable energy sources, it is expected that the need to control critical grid situations with congestion management, feed-in management of renewable electricity generators and switchable loads will increase in future. At the same time, these technical and organisational options will be implemented to an increasing extent to restrict the future grid expansion requirements, if the legal conditions are created to allow this.

Note also that the increasing shift of electricity generation into the distribution grids results in increasing need for coordination between the transmission system and distribution system operators. One example of this is the required coordination between the transmission system operators responsible for frequency control and the distribution system operators whose grid areas are to provide balancing energy for the respective balancing zone via decentralised energy units or flexible loads.

Solutions.

The analyses of this dena study show that grid stability via ancillary services in 2030 can be guaranteed on the basis of the operating equipment existing in the transmission grid or the additional operating equipFACTS = Flexible AC Transmission Systems

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ment planned in the 2013 Network Development Plan, in conjunction with utilisation of large-scale renewable generators, in particular at a high-voltage level, large-scale batteries and with larger flexible industrial loads. The conventional control technology available today is generally suitable for controlling these large units. If, in addition to this, a large number of decentralised units must be integrated at a medium and low-voltage level to provide ancillary service products for technical and organisational reasons, a broad-based standardised information and communication infrastructure must also be available. The costs and benefits of such a solution must be assessed in detail.

The increasing percentage of generation units in the electricity distribution grids and increasing provision of ancillary service products by these units require increasing coordination in system control between the transmission and distribution system operators and an expansion and standardisation of data and information transfer between the system operators involved.

Recommended actions.

Based on the fundamental need to expand the transmission and distribution grids to integrate renewable energy sources, the distribution system operators in particular must be allowed from a regulatory standpoint to make a technical and economic decision whether to invest in further grid expansion or optimise grid operation using stabilising interventions in generation and consumption.

For the necessary provision of ancillary service products from the distribution grid and the increasingly varying grid states, monitoring capabilities, in particular in the lower grid levels, must be expanded to guarantee secure and efficient system control operations management. This results in new responsibilities and tasks for data collection, evaluation, simulation and management of grid states. For this purpose, existing processes must be adapted and expanded, and new tools must be developed.

Implementation of the design and planning of the planned Energieinformationsnetz (energy information network) should be continued rapidly, to permit the transfer of information on the load, grid and generation situation between the system operators.





In order to make ancillary service products from the distribution grid useful for the transmission grid to the extent necessary and appropriate from an overall economic perspective, taking grid restrictions into account, the operative interaction between the transmission grid, distribution grid and plant operators should be developed further.

7 Summary.

The German Federal Government has decided to continue to expand renewable energy to reach 80 percent of the power supply in 2050. The path taken significantly changes the requirements and the technical and economic options available to provide ancillary services to guarantee a secure and stable operation of the electricity grids between now and 2030.

There are sufficient technical solutions for all kinds of system solutions now to guarantee the current level of system security, reliability and high quality of the power supply system in the future, too. Decentralised energy units and operating equipment can and must provide ancillary service products at a far higher

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level, as conventional power plants, which primarily meet our need for ancillary services today, will have far shorter operating hours in future.

With regard to the lead time to implement the solutions and the goals set for further speedy expansion of electricity generated from renewable energy sources, the requirements for using economically appropriate technical alternatives to provide ancillary service products must be created at an early stage. The need to use the alternative products presented in the study to provide ancillary services must be implemented gradually via the solutions discussed as part of the Energiewende (energy turnaround), in order to guarantee system security continuously in the electricity system.

In order to guarantee the same level of system stability in 2030 as today, the members of the dena Ancillary

Services Study 2030 project steering group recommended the following actions:

The regulatory framework must be adapted to ensure that future renewable energy-based electricity  generation systems, especially wind turbines and ground-mounted solar power plants, as well as largescale batteries are equipped to provide instantaneous reserves, so that Germany can fully fulfil its system responsibility in the European integrated grid at all times. The exact scope of the systems to be involved and the need to retrofit the existing systems must be reviewed.

With regard to the characteristics of the balancing energy market, the extent to which pre-qualification  requirements, tender periods and lead times between the tender and provision period can be adapted to allow new providers of balancing energy from decentralised energy units and flexible electricity loads to enter the market, must be assessed. At the same time, solutions must be developed to permit coordination of increased provision of balancing energy via decentralised energy systems from the distribution grid, taking the local grid conditions into account. Further, the determination of the demand for balancing energy should be made more dynamic to allow a daily changing dimensioning of the balancing energy demand as it is increasingly influenced by the weather-dependent electricity feed from renewable energy sources.

The grid connection codes and the technical capabilities of the systems must be refined to allow larger  decentralised energy units in particular to provide reactive power whether they are feeding active power or not. The exact scope of the systems to be involved and the need to retrofit the existing systems must be reviewed. The option of coordinated reactive power provision from decentralised energy units can be used to optimise the demand for grid expansion in the electricity distribution grids. Furthermore, the option of demand-appropriate transfer of reactive power between the high and extra high voltage grid should be reviewed as an alternative to building reactive power compensators.

The existing grid re-establishment concepts based on black start capable conventional power plants  should be retained and developed in future. Suitable instruments must be created to enable system operators to control the fluctuating generation capacity from renewable energy sources appropriately during re-establishment of the grid.

For increased use of ancillary service products from decentralised energy units in the electricity distribu tion grids, coordination and suitable exchanges of information between the system operators are required. For this purpose, the existing cascade principle of passing on requirements and information between upstream and downstream system operators must be upgraded. Every system operator remains Page 19 of 21 dena Ancillary Services Study 2030: Summary of the results of the project steering group.

responsible for the security, reliability, system control and voltage control in its grid area. The transmission system operators will continue to bear the superordinate system responsibility for coordinating grid operation in the European integrated grid. In future, the distribution system operators will have additional responsibilities for data processing, simulation and management.

The implementation of future-proof solutions to provide ancillary services in an electricity supply sys tem with a high percentage of renewable energy must already start now to identify technically and economically optimised solutions today, and ensure that they are available reliably by 2030. Note in particular that required adaptations to the grid connection codes for various elements of the power supply system must be examined and implemented if necessary, to avoid potentially cost-intensive retrofitting measures at a later stage. Sufficient transition periods for design and pilot tests must also be incorporated when introducing new systems and processes.

The costs for maintaining and providing ancillary service products must be economically bearable both  for the system operators and the operators of decentralised energy units and flexible loads. Fundamental properties of generation systems and controllability must be required and ensured as part of the further development of grid connection codes. Further provision of ancillary service products and associated expenses must be made economically viable with a suitable compensation system. Investments and ongoing operating expenditures required on the part of the system operators for secure and stable grid operation in a power supply system with an increasing proportion of renewable energy sources (e.g. grid monitoring and development of system control tools) must be incorporated suitably in the regulatory framework.

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