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In addition to the General Clinics which handled the bulk of the work there were Special Clinics, akin to that at the International Cooperative Institution at Queen's Hospital, Frognal, where patients who had received such injuries as having the nose or chin shot away, received the very best treatment that medical and dental science could provide. By a combination of facial surgery and mechanical appliances the injured parts were restored and the lost parts substituted in such a way that not only was the patient enabled to masticate his food but unattractive personal appearance was greatly mitigated.

"Trench Mouth."—Infectious Stomatitis (Trench Mouth) was practically an unknown disease prior to the War, but the troops had not been long Overseas before this new trouble became manifest to a serious degree, and at one time the epidemic reached the alarming proportions of 10,000 cases. The C.A.D.C., therefore, inaugurated the Department of Oral Pathology, and as a result of microscopic diagnosis and patient perseverance in treatment of the disease it was practically controlled.

The problem presented by numerous cases of fractures of the jaw also became a serious one, and it was necessary to institute a Special Clinic at the Ontario Military Hospital, Orpington, to deal with this type of casualty, and excellent work was done in restoring to patients the lost function of mastication.

Again, previous to the War, many officers and men had been fitted by their private dentists with gold bridges and other dental appliances and in numerous cases these had to be replaced or repaired. To meet this situation, the necessary arrangements were made whereby, at no extra cost to the Canadian Government, this special work could be secured by the patient signing a form which authorised the Paymaster-General to deduct from his pay the bare cost of the material used.

–  –  –

379,395 159,792 57,585 100,387 153,399 29,255 879,813

–  –  –


Total number of cases treated for Infectious Stomatitis (Trench Mouth) during 1918

Total number of treatments required for these cases during 1918


Canadian Chaplain Services.

The Canadian Chaplain Services entered first upon its duties at Valcartier Camp in Canada in August, 1914, and 33 Chaplains accompanied the First Canadian Contingent to England in October of that year, although it was not until August, 1915, that authority was granted for the organization of the Chaplain Services on lines similar to those of other Branches of the Service.

In March, 1917, an Establishment was authorized in which the various religious denominations were represented as follows:—

–  –  –

The Director of Chaplain Services, Hon. Colonel J. M. Almond, C.M.G., has been aided by four. Assistant Directors and a DeputyAssistant Director. Of the Assistant Directors one is in France, one in England and one on the Lines of Communication. In the Divisions at the Front "and in the various areas in England, Senior Chaplains keep in close and intimate touch with the local activities, while a full staff of Chaplains was distributed to minister to patients in Canadian Hospitals and Canadian patients in Imperial Hospitals in large areas, such as London, Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham and Edinburgh. No Canadian soldier has indeed been left without the ministrations of a Canadian Chaplain. It is also 410 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

gratifying that the various Canadian Churches have throughout been represented by many of their ablest Clergymen who have given themselves with whole-hearted devotion and enthusiasm to their work.

In the Field.—The Canadian Chaplains are classed as NonCombatants, but the nature of their ministrations at the front may be gathered from the fact that of the 426 Chaplains who have served with the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, two have been killed in action, one has died of wounds, one was drowned while serving in a hospital ship, and two others died of sickness. In all 21 Chaplains have been wounded while discharging their duties in the front line.

During the later advances about 20 Chaplains were usually selected to accompany the troops into action, and their unfailing steadiness under fire and the example which they have offered of patience and humour, and oft-times heroism, in conditions far more trying to a non-combatant than to a combatant, has frequently done much to sustain and inspire the troops.

It must not, however, be supposed that the duties of the Chaplains on the battlefield were confined to affording an example of' passive endurance; or even to the ministration of spiritual comfort. The duties assigned to the Chaplains were, as a matter of fact, of a decidedly arduous nature. It was their task to organize stretcher-bearing parties and to assist the Medical Officers. A number of them were commonly detailed to the Dressing Stations where they frequently remained for long periods without rest and sleep under heavy fire. Here their duties were both physical and spiritual. Here they bound wounds and gave the men such nourishment as they could take. Here they ministered to the dying, receiving messages to be sent to parents or wives, and were oftentimes loaded down with little personal effects, last little gifts which the owner desired to be sent home should he " Go West." The task of transmitting to the friends at home the last message from their dead, accompanied by a brief account of their passing, was regarded by the Chaplains as one of their most sacred duties; and the gratitude of the relatives and friends of the dead was oftentimes most touching. At such moments, too, the avenues leading to the soul stand wide open, and the spiritual adviser finds a welcome entrance.

To receive the whispered confidences of the dying, to utter a heartening word, offer a whispered prayer and to perform the solemn rites of Communion, were all a part of the Chaplain's Chaplain Services. 411 service in the battle-zone. To the Chaplain, too, fell the task of burying the dead and engaging in the exacting and frequently dangerous work of searching a battlefield for wounded mere.

When the troops were in the training areas, or at rest behind the lines, every attention was given to parade and Voluntary Services, but in the day of battle the Chaplain's duties and spiritual ministrations were of a very different kind.

The Fruits of Labour.—In Hospitals and Casualty Clearing Stations the Chaplains had not only spiritual but social duties to perform. They provided games for the convalescent; they organized whist-drives and checker tournaments, while Boxing Nights and Literary and Debating Evenings all figure prominently in the Chaplains' Reports.

In addition they did much good work in London, where men are always pouring in on leave. Trains were met and accommodation and entertainment provided at Clubs and Hostels. During the month of July, 1918, over 10,000 men were met at various railway stations, and a great number of these taken on personally-conducted tours to the various places of interest in the great Metropolis.

Similar work was also undertaken in the provinces, and in the month of January, 1919, as many as 173 outings were arranged in Liverpool, 6,227 convalescent patients participating in these trips.

The fruits of their services may perhaps be best appreciated in the exceptional moral standard of the Canadian troops, and the Higher Commands have borne repeated testimony to the Chaplain's contributory share in this direction ; for while they have invariably taken a foremost place in every educational movement and in all social and athletic activities, their main care has been the souls of which they were in charge, a duty which lies at the foundation of all worthy conduct and character.

Since the signing of the Armistice the Chaplains have realized, in common with other responsible Officers, the great importance of keeping the men interested, entertained and encouraged during the period of Demobilization. They are continuously moving about among the men, answering innumerable questions, and in many other ways assisting them in the solution of their problems. Commanding Officers have come to regard the Chaplain's services of the highest value, 412 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

and are not slow to give them credit for their helpful and steadying influence. The work which they have accomplished does not lend itself to tabulation, but it is safe to say that they have done for the Canadian Army a service of social, moral and spiritual value in every way equivalent to that which the Churches they represent contribute to the life of the Nation at home.

Honours and Awards. —Some idea of the place the Chaplains have made for themselves in the Overseas Military Forces of Canada. may be gained from the honours and awards which have come to them. Five of them have been made Companions of the Order of St. Michael and St.

George, one a Commander of the Order of the British Empire, nine Companions of the Distinguished Service Order ; three were created Officers of the Order of the British Empire, 34 received Military Crosses, and two were awarded bars ; one while serving in the ranks received the Distinguished Conduct Medal, and three the Military Medal. The Chaplains received 32 Mentions in Despatches, and the names of 13 others were brought to the notice of the Secretary of State for services in connection with the War-a total of 103 awards and mentions.

At the conclusion of hostilities there were 118 Chaplains in England posted to the various Training Areas and serving in Hospitals, Forestry Districts and other Areas. There were 175 Chaplains in France, 80 of whom were in the Corps and the remainder on the Lines of Communication.

Accountant-General's Branch.

The Accountant-General's Branch was organized on December 19, 1916, consequent on the appointment of a Minister of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, and Colonel W. R. Ward, Director of Pay and Record Services, was appointed Accountant-General from that date, with the following instructions issued by the Minister and with the functions

stated herein:

(a) Financial consideration of proposals affecting Establishments of Units and Departments of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada and of all proposals affecting expenditure generally.

(b) Advice on financial matters to the other branches of the Overseas Department.

(c) Advice regarding the general financial administration of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, to ensure that all expenditure is properly authorised, and that proper steps are taken to safeguard public funds.

(d) Enquiry, consideration, and advice regarding Pay and Audit Offices as may be considered desirable by the Minister.

(e) Questions regarding pay and money allowances of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, and decisions as to the proper rates under the Regulations.

(f) Any proposals for amendments to Pay and Allowances and decisions as to the proper rates under the Regulations.

(g) Compilation of Financial Regulations and amendments thereto.

(h) Decisions in consultation with representative of the AuditorGeneral of Canada in regard to writing off any overpayments of losses.

(i) Communications regarding statements and other financial matters requiring the co-operation of the Department of Militia and Defence, Ottawa.

(j) Distribution of Estates of deceased officers and men.

The original instructions provided also for a financial review of contracts and agreements, etc., entered into by the 414 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

Department, but on the appointment of the Overseas Purchasing Committee in July, 1918, all questions referring to this subject were transferred to that Committee.

The original strength of the Accountant-General's Branch as authorised on December 19, 1916, was— 4 Officers, 5 N.C.O's and Men, 3 Civilian Stenographers.

On re-organization of the departments of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada in 1918 the establishment was reduced, and two Officers and four N.C.O's and Men were released for other services.

Revised Edition Financial Regulations.—As the Financial Regulations for the Force had become entirely out of date in 1917, a complete revision was undertaken, and in the latter part of that year, a new book was compiled by the AccountantGeneral, which was sent to Canada in the latter part of May, 1918, to obtain the concurrence of the Militia Department.

Regulations for Civilians.—The general question of employment of civilians is dealt with by the Accountant-General, of whom there are about 1,100 employed in the various Administrative Departments, exclusive of a large number in the hospitals.

To meet the changes arising in the labour market, increased cost of living, etc., it became necessary to reconsider the rates of pay, etc., and revised regulations for the employment and pay of civilians employed in the Overseas Military Forces of Canada were prepared and issued with effect from November 1, 1918.

Financial Arrangements with War Office.—Financial arrangements with the War Office have been under consideration throughout the year, and practically all outstanding questions relative to the incidence of cost and various operations of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada with the Imperial Authorities have been settled, and are now in the course of adjustment.

Establishments.—All questions of Establishments of Units and Formations in the Field and in the United Kingdom are submitted to this Department, and incidence of cost, pay and allowances of personnel and general financial effect thereon is reported to the Minister.

Civil Servants.—In connection with the decision of the Government to discontinue payment of Civil Service salaries, subsequently Accountant-General's Branch. 415 amended by Order-in-Council, P.C. 1240 of May 21, 1918, which, after further consideration, has been held in abeyance till May 1, 1919, it became necessary to collect full particulars of all civil servants in the Overseas Military Forces of Canada. Captain H. M. Dunn came from Ottawa in August, 1918, with over 5,000 index cards of Civil Servants, and has worked under the Accountant-General in securing all particulars of payments made to these Civil Servants on account of military services.

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