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The tables which follow present in a condensed form the outstanding facts regarding the activities and the progressive expansion of the C.A.M.C. during the war.

(A) PERSONNEL.—Strength of C.A.M.C. Overseas Military Forces of Canada on June 1 of successive years and on November 30, 1918.

–  –  –

(B) Units in France and elsewhere.—Summary of Units of the C.A.M.C. in France on June 1 each year (excluding Corps and Divisional Staffs). There is no change between June 1 and November 30, 1918.

–  –  –

(D) Combined Return of Units C.A.M.C.—The combined return of Units of the Canadian Army Medical Corps (excluding Staffs) Overseas in England and in France for the years 1915, 1916, 1917, and 1918, are as follows:— Units.

June 1, 1915

June 1, 1916

June 1, 1917

November 30, 1918

396 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

–  –  –

Total beds, General, Stationary, and Forestry Corps Hospitals

Casualty Clearing Stations.—There were four Canadian Casualty Clearing Stations, one for each Division. These were opened with the arrival or establishment of each Division in France. They were developed into advanced surgical stations, with six operating tables, at four of which during rushes, teams from other hospitals further along the Line of Communication co-operated to deal with urgent head, chest 398 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

–  –  –


Taplow. Duchess of Connaught Canadian Red Cross Hospital.

Opened 15/3/15; on 10/9/17 became No.15 Canadian General (Duchess of Connaught) Hospital

Shorncliffe. Moore Barracks Canadian Hospital.

Opened May, 1915, on 10/9/17; became No.

11 Canadian General Hospital (including affiliated Queen's Canadian Hospital, Beachborough Park)

Orpington. Ontario Military Hospital.

Opened 19/2/16; became No. 16 (Ontario Military Hospital) Canadian Gene Hospital

Bramshott Military Hospital.

Operated by No. 9 Stationary Hospital; taken over from British, September, 1916;

became No. 12 Canadian General Hospital

Hastings. Canadian Military Hospital.

Taken over from British, and operated by No. 8 Stationary Hospital, 22/1/17; by No.

1 Stationary Hospital, 24/9/17; became No. 13 Canadian General Hospital............ 722 313 Eastbourne. Canadian Military Hospital.

Operated by No. 10 Stationary Hospital, became No. 14 Canadian General Hospital

Liverpool. Canadian Military Hospital, Kirkdale.

Opened 2/7/17; taken over by No. 5 Canadian General Hospital

Basingstoke. No. 4 Canadian General Hospital.

Transferred from Salonica; opened 31/8/17... 1,600

–  –  –


Monks Horton.

Opened 1915; became Canadian Command Depot, 24/5/15; reopened as Convalescent Hospital, 21/6/17; closed 1/8/18................ 150 440 Shorncliffe. Greenville Hotel, Red Cross Convalescent Homes and South End.

Employed temporarily in 1915


Opened 11/5/15, closed 31/8/18

Bushey Park. King's Canadian Convalescent Hospital.

Opened 27/12/15. Now Special heart and kidney cases (summer of 1917)................. 400 Uxbridge. Hillingdon House.

Opened 21/9/15; taken over by R.F.C. in 1917

Wokingham. Bearwood Opened 28/9/15

Epsom. Woodcote Park.

Opened for Canadian Convalescents;

Section operated by C.A.M.C., 7/9/15....... 1,200 2,500 3,900 Putney Heath. Perkins Bull Convalescent Home for Officers.

Opened June, 1916, Affiliated with Petrograd Hospital in November, 1918..... 17 43 Shorneliffe. Military Hospital Convalescent Section

Hastings. The Hermitage.

Opened December, 1915; evacuated 24/10/17

Bexhill. Princess Patricia's Canadian Convalescent Hospital.

Opened January, 1918

Matlock Bath. Convalescent Hospital for Officers.

Opened 26/12/17

–  –  –

Hospital Ships.—In 1917 a Hospital Ship Unit was established. In March, 1917, the Dominion Authorities took over from the Admiralty two Hospital Ships for the transport of Invalids to Canada, each being provided with an establishment. The torpedoing of H.M.H.S. " Llandovery Castle " on June 27, 1918, arrested the service for several weeks; it has now been restored.


It would show a lack of appreciation of what is due and fitting, to conclude this account of the official agencies through which the Canadian Expeditionary Force has guarded the health of the troops and cared for the sick and wounded,.without mentioning the wonderful manner in which the efforts of the C.A.M.C. have from the first been aided and encouraged by organisations and private individuals from one end of the Dominion to the other. Nor must we forget those in the British Isles, not Canadians, who have rejoiced in being able, by caring for her soldiers in their sufferings, to show their appreciation of the part played by the Dominion.

So generous and widespread has been this outpouring of help that it is impossible to record faithfully all the assistance which has been received, from great Dominion organisations and Provincial Governments at the one end of the scale, down to those whose loving care for the patient can only show itself outwardly in the work of their hands in the form of soldiers' " comfort bags," knitted scarfs and the like for those in hospital. Still more impossible is it to mention by name all

–  –  –

those who have paid visits to Canadians in hospital week after week, and month following month, to cheer them there and report upon their condition to the Canadian Red Cross. It is indeed only possible to indicate the many forms all this aid has taken.

First and foremost, as representing the Voluntary Aid afforded from every part of the Dominion, must be mentioned the Canadian Red Cross Society and its affiliated organisation, the St. John's Ambulance Association. The extraordinary extent and complexity of the work accomplished by these bodies are the subject of a separate chapter. Here, however, recognition must be given of the efficiency of their work overseas in Flanders and in France. There is not a Field Ambulance nor Casualty Clearing Station or Hospital at the Front but was heartfelt in its appreciation of the promptitude with which, once a need was expressed, that need was met. Whether it -were dressings, articles of hospital clothing or invalid food, or delicacies to vary hospital fare, the want had only to be made known to be met with in little more than the time it took for the Red Cross Motor Transport to reach the Unit. Wherever possible, spacious recreation huts have been provided with stages for concerts, and games to occupy the patients' leisure. In England, the help of the Canadian Red Cross Society has shown itself on a vast scale in the provision of entire hospitals, together with their equipment and a considerable portion of their maintenance.

The greater part of the Duchess of Connaught Hospital, at Taplow, was in this way contributed by the Red Cross. A complete hospital for officers in London, with its equipment and maintenance, was the latest offer.

The Canadian Military Y. M. C. A. has more especially taken under its care the active soldier; nevertheless, many of the larger Canadian hospitals possess Y.M.C.A. Huts, and to their representatives much is owing for supervising and providing recreation and concerts for those patients able to be up and about. The Canadian Field Comforts' Committee is another body whose gifts have cheered Canadian patients.

Much good work has also been accomplished by the Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire. Their outstanding contribution to a single object alone is represented by the equipment of the Imperial Order of Daughters of the Empire Hospital for officers in London.


Canadian Army Medical Corps. 403 To the Canadians domiciled in England and their Canadian War Contingents Association, much too is owing. They have more particularly given their funds for the benefit of the sick and wounded, and in common with the Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire have contributed more especially to the upkeep and maintenance of one particular hospital, the Queen Alexandra Hospital, Beachborough, near Folkestone.

Passing from these National Associations to Provincial bodies, here first and foremost must be mentioned the Government of the Province of Ontario. To it the Canadian Army Medical Corps owes its finest and largest hospital in England, the great Ontario Hospital at Orpington (No.

16 Canadian General Hospital), with its 2,500 beds ; a most notable gift.

Of other public bodies in Canada, special reference must be made to the Universities. Not merely have they given freely of the best of their teaching staffs in Medicine to form University Units, thereby throwing a heavy burden on those remaining behind and rendering it difficult to " carry on," but in addition they have raised sustentation funds and furnished various hospital Units with additional apparatus, conveniences and comforts, all tending to ensure that the work performed was of the best order, and that the patients were provided with the best treatment.

The Universities concerned have given their aid as follows:— McGill






St. Francis Xavier College

The Western

The number of local Societies, branches of the Canadian Club, Women's Institute, Ladies' Aid Societies, Church Societies, Business men's organisations, Friendly Society Lodges, which have contributed to the welfare of the sick and wounded, is so great that it would be invidious to mention single examples There are, however, single individuals whose names must be mentioned. Thus Canada owes to Mr. John Walter, the head of the family which for so many generations has owned the " Times," the use of his great house and estate at Bearwood, (642) DD2 404 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

for the purposes of a Convalescent Hospital ; to Major Waldorf Astor, M.P., accommodation for the Duchess of Connaught Canadian Red Cross Hospital in his beautiful grounds at Cliveden, Taplow ; and to Mr.

Harold Kennedy, of Quebec, the lease of Bromley Park for a Convalescent Hospital. Particular acknowledgment, too, should be made of the debt owing to the Directors and employees of the well-known Massey Harris Company for the beautiful hospital at " Kingswood," Dulwich, including the house, furnishings and equipment complete in every detail, even down to the maintenance of the patients admitted.

Thanks are also due for Clarence House, Roehampton, furnished by the Citizens of Ottawa under the supervision of Miss Lewis.

Sincere gratitude must also be offered to the owners of mansions throughout the length and breadth of the British Isles, who threw open their homes to convalescent officers and men of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. It has seemed as though the Old Country could not do enough to show its affection for Canadians and its appreciation of the part played by the men of the Dominion in the Great War.

Canadian Army Dental Corps. FUNCTION—FORMATION—RECORD.

The Canadian Army Dental Corps was organised early in 1915 to attend to all dental matters affecting the personnel of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, and the appended statement showing the number of operations performed at the different clinics in France and England indicates the immense scale on which the Dental Corps has carried on its duties.

From July, 1915, when the Canadian Army Dental Corps began operations Overseas till December 31, 1918, the number of operations amounted to the substantial total of 2,255,442, including 96,713 operations performed on Imperial troops who, from casualty or from other causes, came within the sphere of the Canadian Dental Corps. This number, however, includes 49,449 scientific treatments for trench mouth in the Oral Pathology Department, and this great volume of work was accomplished by a comparatively small number of qualified dental officers and their assistants. In England, the Administrative Headquarters are in London, where the Director of Dental Services, Col. J. A.

Armstrong, C.M.G., has the assistance of a Deputy Director and a Deputy Assistant Director.

In France, the personnel of the Canadian Army Dental Corps carried on their work principally at Field Ambulances, Casualty Clearing Stations, General and Stationary Hospitals, in the Canadian Forestry Units, in the various Units of Railway Troops, and at Base Camps. These widely dispersed duties were performed under the supervision of the Director of Medical Services at Canadian Corps Headquarters, who forwarded reports on all dental work to the Director of Dental Seivices, London.

In England, Clinics were established at the various Canadian Training Centres, Command and Discharge Depots, Special Hospitals and Segregation Camps ; and in London, for the personnel employed at the different Canadian administrative offices of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, and for officers and men on leave from France requiring emergency treatment.

Every Canadian soldier on arrival in England, while putting in the prescribed time at a Segregation Camp, received a dental inspection and, if time permitted, his requirements were attended to there. If the work could not then be completed, information 406 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

as to any further treatment necessary followed the soldier to whatever location he might be sent, and there the work was continued. Finally, he was again dentally examined before being placed on draft for France and either pronounced dentally fit or made so before leaving.

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