«LONDON PRINTED BY AUTHORITY OF THE MINISTRY, OVERSEAS MILITARY FORCES OF CANADA. REPORT of the MINISTRY Overseas Military Forces of Canada LONDON ...»
7. At the end of each week a separate return (see pro forma below) will be rendered, showing the total numbers of missing by Divisions (all arms) and the numbers included in the missing that are thought to have been taken alive. Due allowance must be made for those who were previously reported missing, Corps Administration. 315
ORGANISATION, ADMINISTRATION AND FUNCTIONS.
1. ORGANISATION OF CORPS HEADQUARTERS.The staff of the Corps Commander comprises three branches, " G," " A," and " Q."
All the orders of the Corps Commander are issued by one or other of these three branches of his staff.
The General Staff ("G") is under the B.G., G.S. (BrigadierGeneral, General Staff).
The Administrative Staff, which combines " A " and is under the D.A. and Q.M.G. (Deputy Adjutant and Quartermaster General).
The Administrative Staff at the time of the Armistice was :
D.A. and Q.M.G..... Brig.-Gen. G. J. Farmar, C.B., C.M.G.
A.Q.M.G................ Lieut.-Col. W. B. Anderson, D.S.O.
D.A.Q.M.G............ Major B. W. Browne, M.C.
D.A A.G................. Major W. Bovey.
In addition to these Staff Officers, there are a number of other officers who are attached and form part of Corps Headquarters, who have special duties, being generally the heads of 316 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.
their respective departments. Their duties are generally indicated by their titles.
D. D. M. S.
D. A. D. R.
There are also others who are not mentioned here, as their duties are not particularly administrative.
Besides these, there are other officers employed on administrative
work, of whom the chief ones are:
Corps Salvage Officer.
Corps Laundry Officer.
Courts Martial Officers.
Corps Canteen Officer.
The actual personnel of " Q " Branch consists of— 1 D.A. and Q.M.G.
1 Staff Learner.
1 Warrant Officer (Chief Clerk).
The composition of the whole of the Corps Staff and attached officers on November 11, 1918, is given in Appendix A.
2. Functions of "Q" Branch.—"Q" Branch deals with all questions of supply, equipment, housing, etc., including supply of food and forage, ammunition supply, water supply, fuel, housing of troops, billeting, hutting and tents, traffic control, baths, trophies of war, claims against the Government, Courts of Enquiry, provision of horses, veterinary services, hire of land, salvage, stores, clothing and equipment, and transport.
Orders for operations or moves are issued by the General Staff.
Administrative arrangements are carried out or coordinated by " Q."
Corps Administration. 317 The distribution of duties in " Q " Branch between the A.Q.M.G. and the D.A.Q.M.G. is given in Appendix C.
A complete copy of the Canadian Corps Administrative Instructions, which are published, amended, and republished from time to time, is attached as Appendix VI.
3. Composition of Corps.—The Corps (Army Corps) consist of:— Two or more Divisions Corps Troops.
The Canadian Corps normally comprised the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Canadian Divisions and Corps Troops.
The normal Order of Battle of the Canadian Corps is attached as Appendix B. Besides the Formations and Units included here, there are a large number of Army and other Units attached from time to time.
4. Establishments.—In order to give an idea of the strengths of various Formations and Units referred to in this report, their establishments are summarised and tabulated in Appendix V.
5. Transport.—The two means of transport with the Corps are Mechanical Transport (M.T.) and Horse Transport (H.T.). Light railways have also been used to a large extent. The Mechanical Transport is generally controlled direct from Corps Headquarters through the S.M.T.O. Horse Transport is generally controlled by Divisions and by the Units to which it is attached.
The Mechanical Transport Units are organised as a Corps M.T.
Column, which is commanded by the S.M.T.O., and comprises:— Headquarters Canadian Corps M.T. Column.
Canadian Corps Troops M.T. Company.
1st Canadian Divisional M.T. Company.
2nd Canadian Divisional M.T. Company.
3rd Canadian Divisional M.T. Company.
4th Canadian Divisional M.T. Company.
Canadian Motor Machine Gun M.T. Company.
Canadian Engineer M.T. Company.
The Corps Troops M.T. Company draw, handle, and deliver supplies for all Corps Troops not forming part of the Divisions.
The Divisional M.T. Companies handle supplies and ammunition each for one Division, and under the control of the S.M.T.O.
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The C.M.M.G.M.T. Company provides the necessary mechanical transport for the technical duties of the two Motor Machine Gun Brigades and the C.E.M.T. Company for the Engineers throughout the Corps, including Engineer duties within Divisions.
The Corps generally had one " Army Auxiliary (Horse) Company " attached, which provided about 100 general service (G.S.) wagons for general transport purposes. These were allotted and controlled direct by the D.A.Q.M.G.
The Horse Transport with Divisions consists of the:
Divisional Ammunition Column (D.A.C.).
Transport with individual Units.
The D.A.C. handles all ammunition used within the Divisions, drawing it from railhead, from dumps, or from the M.T. Column, and delivers it to Batteries or Units as required.
The Divisional Train draws all supplies for the Units of the Division,. divides up and accounts for the supplies, and eventually delivers them to the various Units.
Each Unit (except M.T. Units) has sufficient horse transport attached to carry all the stores and supplies of the Unit and to carry out the ordinary transport duties required by the Unit in action, during reliefs, or on the march.
The above may be summarised as three "echelons" of transport : (1) The Mechanical Transport, controlled by Corps, which draws supplies, ammunition, and stores from railhead or other sources and delivers to Divisions. (2) The Divisional Train and Divisional Ammunition Column, which draw by horsed wagons the supplies and ammunition respectively from the Corps and deliver to Units. (3) The " First Line Transport " of Units, which is under the control of the Units themselves and carries out all transport duties within the Units.
These distinct echelons do not exist in the case of Corps Troops (extra Divisional Units) ; in the case of Siege Artillery, for instance, the Mechanical Transport delivers ammunition from the railheads direct to the guns.
The term "supplies" covers all consumable provisions, including food, forage, fuel, petrol, oils and light.
One arm of the Service, the Army Service Corps, is responsible for the handling and delivering of all supplies to the troops. There are supply details with the M.T. Companies and with the Divisional Trains (which are A.S.C. Units), and all supplies are handled by them. Supplies after being unloaded at the Base are shipped by train in " sections " (generally half a train) numbered for each formation. At railhead the supplies are off-loaded and drawn away by the M.T. Companies to the " refilling points," where they are then cut up and apportioned to the various Units by the personnel of the Divisional Trains, and eventually delivered by the train to the Quartermasters of Units at the Unit horse lines or stores. The Quartermasters' staff then divides up the Unit's rations amongst the various messes, Companies, and Detachments according to strengths.
It will be seen that the rations for any Unit are thus packed for that Unit at the Base, perhaps some five days before they are actually consumed by the men. Thus, if the train journey from the Base were some 36 hours, the rations are packed in railway trucks on, say, " A " day, each truck bearing a large paper number corresponding to the " section " of the formation for which it is intended. The coal, petrol, forage, and bread, and other " components " of the ration may all be packed at different bases, but they eventually find their way, through railway regulating stations, into the same train and reach the railhead, say, on the morning of " C " day. There they are unloaded into the lorries of the M.T. Company (or sometimes by light railway or by horse transport to economise mechanical transport) and transported to the refilling points. After being divided up by the men of the train they are then loaded into the train wagons on the afternoon of " C " day and the wagons remain loaded in their own park overnight. They are then delivered to the Quartermasters of Units on the morning of `D " day, divided up, and issued to messes, etc., and actually consumed by the men on " E " day.
The strength of Formations and Units varies from time to time, and the strength of the " Pack " required for each “Section” is notified daily by the Senior Supply Officer (S.S.O.) of the Division concerned. It is obvious that any change must be anticipated and arrangements made some five days in advance, and the difficulty of foreseeing such changes during operations is considerable.
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A " Pack " contains a definite number of complete rations according to the strength of the formation for which it is intended. Should a formation require more rations the difference is made up from " Field Supply Depots " located at convenient points along the front. Similarly, any rations surplus from the Pack Train are returned to the nearest Field Supply Depot. The number of rations kept in a Field Supply Depot varies, generally about 50,000 rations. There are two or three Field Supply Depots to an Army.
The Army is responsible for delivering supplies at the railheads. The Corps is responsible for conveying them from railhead by lorry or light railway to refilling points. Divisional Trains are responsible for getting them to Units, and the Units themselves (by pack transport if necessary) to all the troops, including those in the actual fighting line.
The system, as regards the supply of Corps Troops is practically the sane, but that the M.T. Company delivers direct to Units instead of to a " Divisional Train."
In addition to the normal supply large reserves are always held in the Army areas in Field Supply Depots to provide against any breakdown of the normal supply.
" Q " Branch is responsible for the co-ordination of all these services, for arranging the position of railheads and refilling points, and generally for the whole service of supply.
7. Ammunition.—The method of handling and supply of ammunition is very similar to that of supplies. The Army is responsible for the delivery of ammunition as required at railhead. The Corps is responsible for its delivery to Divisions at Ammunition Refilling Points (A.R.P.), and the Divisional Ammunition Column is responsible for its delivery from there to Batteries or other Units. The Corps Heavy Artillery does not form part of any Division, and draws its ammunition direct by mechanical transport from the Army and delivers it to Batteries under Corps arrangements. As with supplies, the Corps Administration. 321 “ Q ” Branch of the Corps is responsible for the supply, for co-ordinating all arrangements, and for anticipating requirements in sufficient time to ensure that a supply is available. In order to provide a reserve to meet any emergency the Army and the Corps each maintain " dumps " varying in size with the possibility or probability of active operations requiring a sudden increase in the ammunition expenditure, and probably containing some thousands of tons. " Q " Branch is responsible for the care of all ammunition on charge and for the proper accounting for all ammunition expenditure, but not for the control of the expenditure, which depends solely upon the tactical considerations.
As regards supply, there are three distinct natures of ammunition:—
The Corps M.T. Column, which includes all Divisional M.T.
Companies, is the Unit which draws all ammunition required by Divisions (i.e., field gun ammunition and trench munitions) from the Army, either direct from railhead as it arrives or from Army Dumps. This ammunition is delivered to Divisions as required at their Divisional A.R.P., or is stored by the Corps M.T. Column in. Corps Dumps until required. At the A.R.P. the ammunition is unboxed and drawn forward by the Divisional Ammunition Column, which has General Service wagons for the carriage of ammunition in bulk, and also Limbered Ammunition Wagons, which are fitted to carry a number of rounds ready for the gun in individual compartments. Attached to the Corps M.T.
Column is certain artillery personnel specially trained for the care of ammunition handled or stored by the Column, and one Artillery Officer, an expert in the care and handling of ammunition. This officer (the Canadian Corps Ammunition Officer) works directly under " Q " Branch, and is the technical adviser in all matters regarding the care and handling of ammunition. He also supervises the accounting and issue of ammunition of all kinds.
(842) Y 322 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.
Heavy ammunition is not handled by the Corps M.T. Column, but by the Corps Siege Park, which is a composite Unit comprising the mechanical transport of all Siege and Heavy Batteries. It draws all heavy ammunition from the Army in the same way, but delivers direct to Batteries.
In normal trench warfare the mechanical transport of the Corps M.T.
Column and of the Corps Siege Park is almost wholly replaced by light railway, which carries heavy ammunition direct from railhead to the guns themselves, and field gun ammunition from railhead to the A.R.P., and sometimes even from the A.R.P. to the Batteries. The use of light railways is described and discussed elsewhere.
Besides the actual supply of the ammunition there is a great deal of work necessitated by the return of the empty brass cartridge cases.