«LONDON PRINTED BY AUTHORITY OF THE MINISTRY, OVERSEAS MILITARY FORCES OF CANADA. REPORT of the MINISTRY Overseas Military Forces of Canada LONDON ...»
C.R.E. Corps Troops Headquarters 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th Army Troops Companies, C.E, Pontoon Bridging Company, C.E.
1st and 2nd Tramway Companies, C.E.
*Anti-Aircraft Searchlight Company, C.E.
Canadian Corps Signal Company.
1st and 2nd Canadian Motor Machine Gun Brigades.
1st Canadian Divisional Mechanical Transport Company.
2nd „ „ „ „ „ 3rd „ „ „ „ „ 4th „ „ „ „ „ Canadian Corps Troops Mechanical Transport Company.
Canadian Motor Machine Gun Mechanical Transport Company.
Canadian Engineers Mechanical Transport Company.
8th Army Brigade C.F.A. Park Section.
†Canadian Corps Siege Park.
5th Canadian Field Ambulance.
*1st Canadian Casualty Clearing Station.
*4th „ „ „ „ 1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th Canadian Sanitary Sections.
Canadian Corps Dental Laboratory.
8th Canadian Ordnance Mobile Workshop (medium).
8th „ „ „ „ (light).
26th „ „ „ „ (light).
Canadian Corps Survey Section.
Canadian Corps Military Police.
5th Canadian Area Employment Company.
Canadian Corps Veterinary Evacuating Station.
278 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.
*Canadian Works Group Headquarters— 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Canadian Infantry Works Companies.
6th, 7th, 8th and 9th Canadian Area Employment Companies.
Canadian Corps Labour Reinforcement Pool.
Canadian Corps Salvage Section.
Canadian Corps Burial Section.
*Normally administered by Army Headquarters.
†All Imperial personnel.
Note.—There were other troops attached to the Canadian Corps, but they were not Canadian Units.
3rd Brigade, C.G.A.— Headquarters.
8th Canadian Siege Battery, 8 in. Howitzer.
10th „ „ „ 6 in. „ 11th „ „ „ 6 in. „ 12th „ „ „ 6 in. „ 292 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.
TRANSLATION OF INITIALS.“A” Branch.......... The Adjutant General's Branch of the Staff.
A.A. and Q.M.G. Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster General.
A.C. and R.......... Appointments, Commissions and Rewards.
A.D.E.S............... Assistant Director of Educational Services.
A.D.M.S.............. Assistant Director of Medical Services.
A.D.O.S............... Assistant Director of Ordnance Services.
A.D.V.S............... Assistant Director of Veterinary Services.
A.P.M.................. Assistant Provost Marshal.
A.Q.M.G............. Assistant Quartermaster General.
B.G.G.S............... Brigadier General of General Staff.
D.A.A.G.............. Deputy Assistant Adjutant General.
D.A.D.A.P.S........ Deputy Assistant Director Army Postal Service.
D.A.D.C.S........... Deputy Assistant Director of Chaplain Services.
D.A.D.M.S.......... Deputy Assistant Director of Medical Services.
D.A.D.O.S........... Deputy Assistant Director of Ordnance Services.
D. A. D. R........... Deputy Assistant Director of Roads.
D.A.D.V.S........... Deputy Assistant Director of Veterinary Services.
D.A. and Q.M.G. Deputy Adjutant and Quartermaster Genera.l.
D.D.M.S.............. Deputy Director of Medical Services.
C.A.G.S............... Canadian Army Gymnastic Staff.
C.A.P.C............... Canadian Army Pay Corps.
C.A.P.S............... Canadian Army Pay Services.
C.A.S.C............... Canadian Army Service Corps.
C.C.H.A.............. Canadian Corps Heavy Artillery.
C.C.R.C............... Canadian Corps Reinforcement Camp.
C.D.A.................. Canadian Divisional Artillery.
C. M. G. C........... Canadian Machine Gun Corps.
C.M.G.O............. Corps Machine Gun Officer.
C.M.M.G. Brigade Canadian Motor Machine Gun Brigade.
Corps Administration. 293 C.O
C.O.C.................. Canadian Ordnance Corps.
C.R.A.................. Commanding Royal Artillery.
G.H.Q.................. General Headquarters.
G.O.C.................. General Officer Commanding.
G.O.C. R. A........ General Officer Commanding Royal Artillery.
G.S.O. 1, 2, or 3. General Staff Officer, 1st, 2nd, or 3rd Grade.
N. C. O............... Non-Commissioned Officer.
Q.M.G................. Quartermaster General.
R. N. W. M. P..... Royal North West Mounted Police.
Y.M.C. A........... Young Mens' Christian Association.
294 Overseas Military Forces of Canada
The Branch of the D.A.A.G. is composed of:— A. Officers.
Staff Learner (Attached)............ Major A. McMillan, D.S.O.
Court Martial Officer (Attached) Major E. N. Armour.
Total Officers, 3.
B. Other Ranks.
1 Superintending Clerk (Warrant Officer).
1 Staff Sergeant.
1 Sergeant Typewriter Mechanic.
Total Other Ranks, 17.
ADMINISTRATION.The Branch is primarily administered by the D.A.A.G., subject to the direction and control of the D.A. and Q.M.G., Canadian Corps.
The relationship of the Branch to the other Branches in the Corps, and to the other Services generally and the channels of communication between them, is shown by the diagram, Appendix I., attached hereto.
But it must be understood that, while this diagram indicates the system of organisation, mobility is always assured, and the system is sufficiently elastic to meet all the varying conditions which may arise.
The organisation aims at a due subdivision of labour and decentralisation of responsibility among subordinates, each individual being given duties which he can perform adequately ; at the same time, the central control and co-ordination of subordinate parts for the attainment of the common objective is assured.
Corps Administration. 295
The work of the Branch of the D.A.A.G. comprises:— Discipline.—Including the discipline of Units, Officers, other ranks, Courts of Enquiry, Boards, Courts Martial, and Suspended Sentences.
There is no subject of more importance to the Army than that of discipline. It is the means by which the Army is held together and carries on. Without discipline all military bodies become mobs, and worse than useless.
It is a particular function of the D.A.A.G. Branch to see to the maintenance of discipline throughout the Corps, and while the responsibility for the discipline of a Unit rests in the first instance on the Commanding Officer, supervised by the Brigade and Divisional Commanders, the general direction and supervision rests with the D.A.A.G.
To maintain discipline and award punishments for military offences, the Commanding Officer of the Unit has ample powers of summary punishment. For more serious cases the offender is sent for trial by a Field General Court Martial, which has plenary powers of punishment.
For the trial of all serious, difficult or complicated cases the Court Martial Officer, a trained legal expert, attends. He records the evidence and advises the Court on all points of law and procedure.
But discipline enforced by punishment alone is a poor sort of discipline which will not stand any severe strain. What is aimed at is the high state of discipline which springs from a military system administered with impartiality and judgment so as to induce on all ranks a feeling of duty and the assurance that, while no offence will be passed over, no offender will be unjustly dealt with.
In order to give men who have committed serious military offences through exhaustion, temporary loss of nerve, or other causes, an opportunity of redeeming their character and earning the remission of their sentences the Army (Suspension of Sentence) Act was passed. This Act provides that when any soldier is sentenced by a Court Martial to penal servitude or imprisonment he will not be committed to prison, but will be kept under arrest until the directions of the " Superior Military Authority," that is, the Commander-inChief or the Army Commander, are received. The Act does not affect the rights of confirming and reviewing authorities to commute or remit the sentence of the Court Martial, but where such authorities 296 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.
consider that sentences of penal servitude or imprisonment should be carried out they state this definitely in a separate minute when forwarding the proceedings giving their recommendations. When a sentence has been suspended by a " Superior Military Authority," the Unit concerned is at once notified by telegram, stating the date of suspension, and the soldier under sentence is released from arrest. He thereupon becomes free from any disability in respect of the sentence which has been suspended.
Where a sentence has been suspended the case may at any time, and must at intervals of not more than three months, be reconsidered by a " Competent Military Authority," who is usually the Brigade Commander or other officer holding an equivalent or superior command. If on the reconsideration of the sentence it appears to the " Competent Military Authority " that the conduct of the soldier has been such as to justify a remission of the sentence he shall remit it. If he does not think the soldier's conduct deserves the remission of the sentence, he may bring it forward for reconsideration at a later date. If, on the other hand, the soldier's conduct justifies it, the " Superior Military Authority " may order that the soldier be committed to prison to serve the sentence.
The working of the Act has been most satisfactory. It has resulted in the prevention of crimes committed with a view of evading duty. At the same time, the Act enables clemency to be extended to soldiers who have been guilty of grave military offences, and gives them the opportunity during the period of the suspension of their sentences of expiating their offences by a period of good conduct or by gallant or meritorious acts.
Military Law.—The administration of Military Law and the compilation of regulations relating thereto, rulings and complaints.
The D.A.A.G. is responsible that Military Law is correctly and uniformly administered throughout the Corps, and in accordance with the King's Regulations and the orders and rulings of higher authority from time to time issued.
He must also see that all amendments to the Army Act or other statutes relating to the Army, as well as any changes in the King's Regulations, Rules of Procedure, etc., are immediately brought to the notice of lower formations. The compilation of all regulations and rulings of higher authority for reference and promulgation is one of the important duties of his Branch.
Corps Administration. 297 He also examines and advises on all complaints of officers and other ranks before forwarding them to higher authority, and is responsible that any complaints meriting redress are given effect to immediately.
Executive Duties connected with the Appointment of Officers.
(other than Staff and Administrative Appointments).—Personal services, special appointments, such as Town Majors, Area Commandants, etc., transfers, postings, employments, exchanges, leave and resignations.
The appointment of Staff and Administrative Officers and the promotion of all officers is handled by the Assistant Military Secretary.
Questions relating to the Supply of Military Personnel to the Army, including strengths, reinforcements, labour, employment, and man power.
During the year 1918 the demand for reinforcements was extremely heavy on account of the continued activity at the front.
At the commencement of the enemy's Offensive all Battalions of the Canadian Corps were brought up to full strength, and the Canadian Corps Reinforcement Camp at Aubin St. Vaast was filled with reinforcements.
In order to facilitate the despatch of reinforcements to Units a Branch of the C.C.R.C. (known as the Advanced C.C.R.C.) was formed in the Corps Area, and front this Advanced C.C.R.C. reinforcements could be sent to Units on very short notice and with very little delay.
When the Canadian Corps entered the Line to participate in the Battle of Amiens, all Units were up to strength, and from 6,000 to 8,000 reinforcements were in the immediate vicinity, ready to be despatched to the different Units engaged on the shortest notice.
In order to be better able to follow up every success gained, the experiment of reinforcing Infantry Units actually in action, without withdrawing them from the Line, was put into effect" for the first time in warfare and proved successful, as Battalions withdrew from the fight at practically the same strength as they entered.
As the demands for reinforcements became more acute, it was decided that reinforcements in England with only 10 298 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.
weeks' training would be sent to France instead of waiting to complete the usual 14 weeks. This, however, proved unsatisfactory, and was discontinued.
As the Corps advanced so the advanced portion of the C.C.R.C.
moved forward, and in order to obviate reinforcements arriving at Units in an exhausted condition, Staging Camps were organised between the Advanced C.C.R.C. and Units so that the troops could be rested and receive proper meals before joining their Units.
Interior Economy, including establishments and organisations.
1. It is apparent that every Unit in the Army must have an Establishment, that is to say, a definite limitation of the personnel, animals, and material which comprises it.
It is only by means of establishments that the fighting or effective strengths of Units can be ascertained, and a direct control maintained over supplies of personnel, animals, ammunition and equipment. One of the great factors, however, which conduced to make the Canadian Corps such an effective fighting force, was the readiness at all times to discard establishments which had proved themselves unsuitable to changed conditions.
Alterations in establishments which were necessary to meet new conditions of warfare were made and approved, due regard being had to the interests of economy.