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are evacuated to the Base for treatment. At the V.E. Station a motor horse ambulance is constantly in readiness to collect animals that cannot be moved on foot. The V.E.S. of Canadian Corps is not confined to the reception of Canadian animals alone, but receives and evacuates animals from any Mobile Veterinary Section that may be operating in its area.

Sergeants, Canadian Army Veterinary Corps.—The field duties of these N.C.O's consist in rendering " First Aid " treatment in the absence of the Veterinary Officer, in reporting to the Veterinary Officer cases of sickness and injury, in constantly being on the alert for symptoms of contagious and infectious diseases, and in keeping watch for irregularities in animal care and management. In times of active operations the Sergeant, C.A.V.C., supplements in many ways the work of the Veterinary. Officer, and under his officer's supervision acts as " dresser " of simple and minor injuries. The service rendered by these N.C.O's has been invaluable.


It is the duty of Paymasters to distribute cash and obtain receipts for payments made, accounting for same through the Field Cashiers to the Paymaster-General.

In addition to the distribution of funds, Paymasters maintain a regimental nominal roll, and are responsible for all entries in Active Service Pay Books affecting accounts.

They make advances of pay to officers, issue cheques to men proceeding on leave, attend to various matters regarding Pay and Allowances, Separation Allowances, Remittances of officers and other ranks, and Wills. They audit and are responsible for canteen books, and from time to time undertake special duties, such as procuring subscriptions to War Loans, etc.

Subject to the chain of responsibilities and duties shown in Appendix IV., the Field Cashier of the Canadian Corps receives his orders from the Corps Commander as issued through the " A " Branch of his Staff.

–  –  –

Incoming correspondence is received through two channels:— (1) Unit letter and parcel mails are loaded at the Base in trucks for Corps Army Post Office and Divisional Railhead Army Post Offices, which are despatched by supply trains to Corps Administration. 271 the appropriate supply railheads of the formation, thence by lorry to the Field Post Office, and by horse transport to the Units.

(2) All correspondence posted in the B.E.F., complimentary and subscribers' copies of the London daily papers, the " Canadian Daily Record," ordinary and official correspondence from the United Kingdom, Canada, etc., for Army, Corps, Division and Brigade Headquarters, are sent up by lorries from the Base. Hence they connect with the Corps postal lorry at the Army Postal Depot, the latter connecting up with the Corps and each Division under its administration. It is thus possible to obtain London daily papers at the Front the day following publication, and frequently (when the Packet arrives early at the Base Port) on the night of publication.

The Railhead Army Post Office with each Division is situated at the supply Railhead, and moves with its Division on a change of Railhead.

This office operates as a mobile Depot for the Divisional mails and is connected by lorry with the Corps, and thence with the Army and the bases. It consolidates the outgoing mail for the five Field Post Offices of its Division into complete despatches for the Corps, Army, General Headquarters, Bases, Departments of the G.P.O., London, and Provincial centres in England where necessary. Similarly all incoming mails for the Divisions are sent to the Railhead A.P.O. and are there separated, loaded on lorries, and despatched to the F.P.O. from which the Unit collects its mail. A daily service is maintained for all Units, both for incoming and outgoing mails, while there is a twice daily service for official correspondence posted in and addressed to formations within the Army area. The Corps F.P.O., in addition to handling the correspondence proper to Corps Headquarters and Corps Troops, acts as a connecting link between Corps and its Divisions, and as a transfer point for letter mails to and from Divisions and points outside the Corps area (i.e., Army, General Headquarters, Bases and the United Kingdom).

All letter mails for the United Kingdom and Overseas are despatched daily to the Base by lorry, arriving in England the afternoon of the following day.

Treatment of Correspondence undeliverable with the Unit.— Normally correspondence is redirected by the Unit mail orderly in cases of detached personnel and delivery is thus secured through the ordinary channels. In the case of casualties, however, the Unit is not for some time aware of the man's whereOverseas Military Forces of Canada.

abouts, and this class of mail is sent to a Canadian Postal Branch at Canadian Section, General Headquarters, 3rd Echelon, where it is redirected, as soon as hospital reports are received, to the addressee's hospital location. Indefinitely addressed correspondence is similarly dealt with and redirected from Base Records. In no instance is correspondence returned to the sender in Canada as " undeliverable " unless the addressee has been killed or posted as missing, and then only after the endorsements have been verified from records.

Each Army and Field Post Office is fully equipped with stamps, facilities for cashing and selling postal orders, and handling incoming and outgoing registered correspondence. The Staff is composed of recognised employees of the Post Office Department, Canada, and the same attention as in civil life is given to every detail of the work.


Chaplains.—Chaplains are appointed from the Canadian Chaplain Services to Brigades The Chaplain's first great duty is to minister to the spiritual needs of the men, and to sustain or improve their morals, emphasising the importance of morals as a factor in morale. His position is peculiar in that it brings him closer to the men in many ways than the officer who must exact discipline, but at the same time the Chaplain must consider himself as a soldier, respecting discipline and authority.

The Chaplain is responsible for Church Parades under instructions from the senior Chaplain, and under the approval of his Commanding Officer in the Unit to which he is attached. He has a unique opportunity on these weekday occasions, if a broad-minded man, to reason with those under his care on the necessity for the highest standard of conduct, thus supporting his Battalion in the achievement of morale. He is generally responsible for the promotion of entertainments for the men, and being in touch with the Y.M.C.A., in assisting in the promotion of recreation and the providing comforts for the men. Latterly, he has been invaluable in conducting and organising educational classes.

In action the Chaplain acts under instructions from his senior Chaplain, advised by his Commanding Officer. At times he must be detached to and employed at Field Dressing Stations, but generally he is found with the Medical Officer of his Unit, or at that place where his services can be utilized to the best advantage to the greatest possible number, i.e., at the point where wounded and dying men will be brought from all quarters of the battlefield.

Corps Administration. 273 In stationary warfare, however, the Chaplain visits men in the trenches, and give encouragement or consolation as seems most suitable.

The Chaplain is the man. to whom the Unit looks for a fit and safe standard of living. Sincerity, above all things is most to be desired, and good broad views of human life. Honour where honour is due, and common sense and charity to those who stray. In action he is responsible for burials and for reporting particulars of the graves, etc., to the Divisional Officer, and to the Unit to which the deceased belonged.


The Canadian Corps Survey Section.—This is a Unit administered by the Artillery and is divided into four sections as follows:— Artillery Observation Section.—This section is composed of two officers and 88 other ranks and operates six Observation Posts.

Its duties consist of the accurate location of hostile Batteries by means of bearings taken of their flashes, and the registration of our own guns by bearings taken on air bursts.

Intelligence Observation Section.—This section consists of one officer and 40 other ranks, and operates Observation Posts covering the Corps frontage, collecting all possible information concerning the movements of the enemy and reporting points of interest of an intelligence nature. They are charged chiefly with the watching of the rear areas opposite the Corps frontage, reports on the forward areas being left to the Brigade and Battalion Observers.

Headquarters Section.—This section consists of one officer and 14 other ranks. The duty of this section is to collect and co-ordinate the information supplied by the two groups.

In addition to this, one N.C.O. and seven men are charged with the task of the location of our own Battery positions and the preparation of fighting maps for the same. During a period of advances, such as was experienced during the last three months of the war, the Artillery Observation Section and the Intelligence Observation Section are combined.

They maintain usually three Observation Posts covering the Corps frontage and that of Flanking Divisions. They are constantly moving forward, keeping in touch with the ',advancing Infantry. This is done very largely by a screen of scouts thrown forward from the posts. Each post uses, as a rule, six scouts and two German-speaking personnel, the latter being employed to obtain identifications.

(642) T 274 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

When possible, scouts make a tour of the frontage allotted.them three times. daily.

The Posts are kept in communication with Headquarters by means of wireless (C.W. sets). These sets have a radius of about 1,200 yards.

In order to keep in touch with Counter Battery and Heavy Artillery it is necessary for the Headquarters Section to be located close to Heavy Artillery Headquarters or one of their forward exchanges. This, owing to the limited range of the wireless sets, very often necessitates the establishment of forward Headquarters. Under such conditions, the topographers (battery locaters) are used as a staff to man the report centre.

Headquarters Draughting Section.—Composed of one officer and 26 men attached to Corps Headquarters. This section is responsible for the reproduction and distribution of maps throughout the Corps. Five men of this section are attached to the Branch Intelligence Officer for interpreting and reproducing information obtained from aeroplane photographs.

The Headquarters Draughting Section is detached and forms part of the " I " Branch at Corps Headquarters.

The Y.M.C.A.—The Canadian Y.M.C.A. in France is a Unit of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, with an authorised establishment of officers and other ranks. It seeks to serve all the Canadian Forces in France, although most of the work is naturally with the Canadian Corps.

The work in France is administered from the Corps where Y.M.C.A.

Headquarters are established, with stores, equipment and offices. The organisation within the Corps consists of a Headquarters Company and a Field Company with each Division and with Corps Troops. The other ranks employed in the Corps area are administered through the 9th Canadian Area Employment Company, which was organised for this specific purpose. All officers and other ranks employed outside the Corps are administered through the Y.M.C.A. Military Services Department.

The Canadian Y.M.C.A. within the Corps is administered as a Department of Canadian Corps Headquarters, and the Senior Officer reports to the D.A. and Q.M.G. through the usual channels.

From the Y.M.C.A. point of view the Senior Officer is advised by an Executive Committee composed of the departmental heads and the senior officers of Divisions.

Corps Administration. 275 The Senior Officer also reports to the Chief Supervisor, Canadian Y.M.C.A., London, and through him is responsible to the National Council, Y.M.C.A., Toronto.

The Y.M.C.A. is not a Church or sect, but acts on behalf of all the Churches in Canada in providing comfort, entertainment, and inspiration for the troops. In carrying out this programme the work falls into five well-defined departments :-1. Business. 2. Athletics. 3. Entertainment. 4.

Educational. 5. Religious. The Y.M.C.A. does not claim to exercise exclusive control in any of these departments, but acts rather as a supplementary agency in organising and promoting the voluntary activities of the troops.

The Canadian Y.M.C.A. secures its financial support from three sources:—1. Government assistance through the maintenance, pay, and allowances of personnel. 2. Public subscription. 3. Canteen profits. This income has increased very rapidly since the beginning of the War, and the total amount received has been expended on service to the troops, with the exception of the funds now being used as capital for the support of canteen operations. As soon as this service is reduced or eliminated the amount so employed will also be expended in general service to the troops.

The Canadian Corps Reinforcement Camp.—The Canadian Corps Reinforcement Camp was organised in order to provide a Department directly under the Corps Commander which would be responsible for getting reinforcements to Units without delay. A certain percentage of reinforcements for the Corps is always kept at the Canadian Corps Reinforcement Camp for immediate despatch to the Corps should they be required.

The organisation is into Wings, and these are:

1 Wing to each Division.

1 Wing dealing with Artillery.

1 Wing dealing with Engineers.

1 Wing dealing with Machine Guns.

The Wings were given an Establishment of administrative and instructional personnel.

The Wings are mostly near the Base, and a Staging Camp was opened near Corps Headquarters at which the reinforcements a, rest on their way to join their Divisions.

–  –  –

Canadian Corps, Headquarters.

The Canadian Light Horse.

One Squadron R. N. W. M. P.

Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion.

Canadian Corps Heavy Artillery.

5th Canadian Divisional Artillery.

8th Army Brigade C.F.A.

*" E " Battery Canadian Anti-Aircraft.

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