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The Senior Supply Officer is charged with the duties arising from the supply requirements of the Division as embodied in formations' demands, and attends to the taking over of all rations, forage, and Army Service Corps supplies, inspects them as to the quality and quantity, and supervises their proper distribution to the four Companies' dumps. He chooses new refilling points according to the locations most favourable for their establishment, readjusts the constitution of. the various (642) S 258 Overseas Military Forces of Canada, ration groups as may be necessary owing to movements of Units ;

ensures that Units' Quartermaster Stores do not accumulate supplies, furnishes the Officer Commanding Mechanical Transport Company with a daily statement as to the feeding strength of the four Groups, and is generally responsible to the Commanding Officer for the efficient rationing of all Units on the strength of or attached to the Division.

The Officers Commanding the four Companies of the Train attend to the proper maintenance of personnel, horses and vehicles, on the strength of, or attached to, their respective Companies. They usually inspect and report upon the condition of First-Line transport within their Group, superintend the internal economy of their Companies, and carry out all routine duties and special transport or other details, which may be assigned to them.

The Supply Officers are each in charge of one Refilling Point staffed by nine other Ranks. They collect the daily A. B. X55's from Units of the Groups, tabulate these demands on A.F. W. 3316, and forward the latter to the Senior Supply Officer for the information of the Officer Commanding and the Supply Officer Mechanical Transport Company, retaining one copy to enable a correct distribution to be made to Units on the basis of indents when supplies are received Any shortages or defects of quality are notified at once to the Senior Supply Officer. They frequently visit Units' Quartermasters to receive complaints, and either make adjustments or report the circumstances to superior authority. To sum up : they are primarily responsible for maintaining the proper quality and quantity of Army Service Corps supplies in their Group.

Officers in charge of Horse Transport Sections of Companies supervise the upkeep of their sectional turnout within the lines and accompany them on supply or baggage convoy, besides taking their share in the ordinary Company routine. In the case of the section allotted to transport of supplies, the Lieutenant i/c Section is expected to be present at the refilling point and to ensure proper loading, to enforce discipline en route, and to satisfy himself that all supplies are delivered to the Units to which they are assigned. Should loss or accident occur through enemy or other causes, he must immediately report the circumstances to the Supply Officer of his Brigade in order that the Unit may not be deprived of rations.

Corps Administration. 259 The Requisitioning Officer, as his title implies, was included in Train Establishment, to obtain locally, such Army Service Corps supplies as might be needed to supplement receipts from the daily pack train. As a matter of practice, he has usually been engaged on other duties, and in the case of the 4th Canadian Divisional Train, has been continuously " on Command " with the Central Purchase Board since the winter of 1916THE MEDICAL SERVICES.

Functions.—The work of the Medical Service of the Corps is : (1) Preventive; and (2) Corrective.

(1) Preventive—This aspect of the Service is concerned with maintaining the health of the Forces and in avoiding impairment of effective strength through sick wastage. It includes the supervision and control of hygienic and sanitary conditions in every way.

It deals with:

The hygienic and sanitary conditions of all places occupied or frequented by troops, including trenches, dug-outs, billets, barracks, messrooms, cook-houses, ablution and bath-houses, etc.

The sufficiency, quality, wholesomeness of food, its proper storage, preservation, and preparation.

The potability of, and the purification of water.

The personal cleanliness of troops and the adequacy and proper construction of bath-houses.

The sufficiency and cleanness of clothing, blankets, etc.

The vermin disinfectation of clothing, blankets, etc., the adequacy and proper construction of disinfestors.

The inoculation and vaccination of troops.

The isolation of cases of infectious disease and of contacts, their disinfection and the disinfection of their billets, clothing, blankets, etc.

The location, adequacy, and proper construction of latrines, urinals, grease traps, garbage pits, and incinerators, and their maintenance in a sanitary condition.

The proper disposal of excreta, garbage, sullage, etc.

The sanitary condition of horse standings and the proper disposal of manure.

The prompt burial of dead animals.

(642) S2 260 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

In all previous wars the sick wastage was many times more than the wastage of battle. The perfection of the preventive work of the Medical Services has entirely changed this, and the incidence of sickness has become less than in civil life.

(2) Corrective.—This aspect of the Service is concerned with the treatment and care of sick and wounded, as far as this is practicable in the zone of military operations, and with the disposal of casualties.

The Corps, being a battle formation, must be kept mobile and cannot be burdened with casualties who will be ineffective for more than a short period. Therefore such casualties, whether sick or wounded, are evacuated at once from the Corps to Casualty Clearing Stations which are outside the Corps and battle zone.

While the particular functions of certain Medical Units are of a preventive aspect, and of others of a corrective aspect,. all members of the Medical Service are specifically charged with the duty of concerning themselves with the incidence and spread of disease amongst the troops or amongst the surrounding civil population.

Deputy Director Medical Services.—This officer is the responsible adviser of the Corps Commander in all -Medical Service matters, and is in charge of all aspects of the Medical Service of the Corps. He is assisted by a Deputy Assistant Director Medical Services.

Assistant Director Medical Services.—There are four ; one with each Division. An A.D.M.S. is the responsible adviser of the G.O.C. the Division in all Medical Service matters within the Division and, under the D.D.M.S., is in charge of the Division Medical Services.

Assistant Inspector of Drafts.—This officer is directly under the D.D.M.S. His function is to hold Medical Boards for the purpose of classifying troops in categories according to their physical fitness. This enables the authorities concerned to assign soldiers to their duties for which they are physically fit. The Units of the Corps are reviewed in this way every two months.

There is a Medical Officer attached to each Unit from the C.A.M.C. He must regard himself as an officer of the Unit. He is responsible to the Commanding Officer for the health of the Unit ;

that all sanitary arrangements are beyond reflection, and that all sicknesses are immediately and properly attended Corps Administration. 261 to. He is responsible that measures are taken to prevent or check disease, and to alleviate all evil effects from strain and exposure. He must study human nature very thoroughly, dealing firmly with any malingerers or shirkers, and considerately where attention is required. He must take precautions against the spread of any contagion, and advise as to baths and disinfection of clothing. He must at all times watch very closely to see that sore feet receive proper attention.

Out of the Line he holds daily sick parades and inspections, superintending the evacuations where necessary. In the line he is governed by conditions, and attends to wounded immediately at his dressing station if practicable, but otherwise wherever they may be. He also visits each day all posts to see if any men on duty require attention.

He is responsible for the training of the Unit Stretcher Bearers, and he is responsible for their supplies, and for the supplies of all medical stores.

He has his own immediate staff for the maintenance of his Dressing Station, also a Sanitary Corporal, who works with the Pioneers ; and a water detail that takes special charge of the water carts, and of the testing of all water supplies, to ensure that only good water is issued to the men.

He is assisted by:

Medical Orderly—One to each Unit. These soldiers have undergone the regular course of C.A.M.C. training and are proficient in dressing, bandaging, disinfection of apparatus and instruments, etc.

Stretcher Bearers—There are 16 to each Unit, with additions as necessary during battle. They are not C.A.M.C. personnel, but are trained by the R.M.O. in stretcher drill and are detailed by him for duty during battle.

Water Details—Five to each Unit. They are not C.A.M.C. personnel, but are trained by the R.M.O. in the sterilisation and handling of water supply. They carry on under his supervision.

Field Ambulances.—The function of a Field Ambulance is to collect and concentrate casualties from Units, give them medical care and treatment as far as this is practicable in, the forward zone, and finally to make disposition of them either by returning them to their Unit for duty or by evacuating them to a Medical Formation more permanently located for further medical care and treatment.

262 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

A Field Ambulance is the essential battle formation of the Medical Services. Its organisation must be kept in the highest state of perfection to withstand the heavy strain of battle. A Canadian Field Ambulance has handled more than 4,000 battle casualties in 30 hours, and given each case good attention.

During a battle a requisite number of Field Ambulances is divided into sections, each of which operates an Advance Dressing Station. This A.D.S. collects and concentrates casualties from several Units. Main Dressing Stations are operated by still other Field Ambulances, and these collect and concentrate the casualties from several A.D.S's and evacuate them to the Casualty Clearing Stations back of and outside the Corps.

As a rule, remedial measures for battle casualties that are undertaken by Field Ambulances, are confined to the sustaining of the patient in the best possible condition until he can reach the Casualty Clearing Station, where complete operating and. other hospital facilities exist that cannot be maintained in the changing battle zone. Therefore, only minor surgery is done at Field Ambulances as a rule, except that emergency major operations are undertaken at Main Dressing Stations in cases of urgent necessity.

Rest Stations.—There arises a class of sick or wounded, most of whom are able to be up and about, whose ailments are not of a severe nature or prolonged. It is found, particularly in quieter periods, that wastage can be reduced by retaining these cases in the Corps. For this purpose " Rest " Stations as required are established in the back part of the Corps area. These Stations are operated by Field Ambulance personnel.

At the Corps Rest Station there is a Skin and Scabies Centre, and an Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Centre, where special treatment is available, and where defective vision is corrected with spectacles.

Motor Ambulance Convoy.—The function of this Unit is the transport of wounded from Main Dressing Stations to Casualty Clearing Stations. It works in close co-ordination with Field Ambulances, which it must keep clear of congestion. It is a very important branch of the Medical Services, particularly in battle.

–  –  –

but the Assistant Director Ordnance Services of the Corps is responsible for the location and arrangement of dumps, care and preservation of ammunition, and for all technical questions in connection therewith. For this purpose he has at his disposal one or more Ammunition Sections detailed from the Army, each consisting of one officer and nine other ranks.

The Armourers are charged with the supervision and repair of all rifles, revolvers, machine guns and bicycles in the Corps. Minor repairs are carried out regimentally by the Battalion Armourer Staff Sergeants and Armourer Corporals, of whom there are four in each Battalion, and more important repairs are effected in the Armourer Shop, there being one of these in each Division, the personnel being found from the Divisional Armourer Sergeant-Major, the three Brigade Armourer Quartermaster-Sergeants, and two or more of the Regimental Armourer Staff Sergeants, assisted by men attached from Battalions who have had experience as mechanics in civil life and are being trained to qualify as Armourer Corporals.

The Light Shops deal with field guns and carriages and transport vehicles, and to a certain extent with heavy Artillery, and the Medium Shop with heavy and siege equipments. In each Army there is an Ordnance Mobile Workshop Heavy, which has more elaborate machinery than the light or medium shops, and which is capable of undertaking the most delicate and extensive repairs. Equipments, the repairs to which are beyond the scope of the Corps shops, are sent to the heavy shop.

All demands for guns, arms, clothing, equipment and stores are submitted by Units to the Deputy Assistant Director Ordnance Services administering them.

Units' indents are checked by the D.A.D.O.S. with the: Mobilisation Store Table of the Unit, which lays down, in detail, the stores the Unit is entitled to, and with the D.A.D.O.S's records of issues to, and returns from, the Units concerned.

Each indent bears a certificate of the Commanding Officer of the Unit that the stores demanded are to replace those lost or rendered unserviceable through the exigencies of the Service, or that they are a first supply. In the latter case the authority for the issue is quoted.

In the case of demands for stores to replace unserviceable articles the indent is only passed when it is accompanied by the unserviceable articles, which are then returned to the Base as salvage.

264 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

In the case of guns, carriages, sights, or optical instruments and vehicles, the indents for replacements must be supported by certificates of an I.O.M. that the articles demanded are beyond repair in the local shops.

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