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Pioneer Sergeant.—The Pioneer Sergeant has a staff of Pioneers whom he uses to further the comfort of officers and men by improving billets, beds, latrines, or any other minor repairs necessary in the Battalion. He has under him a Sanitary Corporal, who sees daily to. the care of latrines and refuse. He finds burial parties, and makes crosses for those killed in action. In stationary warfare he is usually in charge of dug-out material, and with his staff works on the final improvements of dug-outs and latrines. In open warfare he generally attends to stretcher bearer work and salvage parties.

The Orderly Room Clerk or Sergeant is in charge of the regularity of the Orderly Room in general seeing that the Adjutant's orders are carried out. He prepares all Returns for signature. He is responsible for the punctual despatch of all correspondence and for the record of all letters and telegrams. He is responsible for indenting in time for all Orderly Room supplies, paper, etc., and for the issue of all stationery to Companies. He is responsible for the discipline of the Orderly Room Staff, and for disposition of work.

(642) Q2 228 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

Gas.—The Battalion Gas Sergeant is responsible for the maintenance of efficient Gas respirators throughout the Battalion, for the constant testing of same, and for the instructions in the proper manner that they should' be used. He is responsible, when possible, for the making of dug-outs gas proof. He promulgates to all ranks the nature of gases, the way in which they are propelled, and the means of detecting same, also the first aid necessary in the event of gas poisoning. He is responsible immediately after a gas attack that the proper steps are taken to dispel the gas from the area. He is responsible for the supply of antigas appliances, and for their distribution, viz. : such things as strombos horns, gongs, fans, etc. He keeps careful note of any occurrences relating to gas, advising when " Gas Alert " is necessary, and making full reports on any gas situation. For these purposes he has under him Company Gas N.C.O's, one of whom is attached to each Company.

Battalion Orderly Officer and Orderly N.C.O's simply carry out similar duties to those described with Companies, only on the broader basis of the Battalion.

The Quartermaster.—The Quartermaster is responsible for the provision of correct rations, of food, forage, fuel, arms, clothing, boots, equipment and necessaries, and all articles of ordnance stores. He keeps in close touch with the D.A.D.O.S., and with the Brigade Supply Officer.

He is responsible for the proper distribution to companies and other attachments of the rations, fuel, etc., and is primarily responsible for the accuracy of ration indents. He is responsible for the inspection and disposition of kits of Officers and men killed in action and missing. He is responsible for the billeting of the Battalion, generally preceding the Battalion to a new area, to arrange same, and always settling billeting claims. He keeps his own records and files of orders relating to his department, receipts, duplicate indents, etc. He must keep in close liaison with the Adjutant, so that his work harmonises with operations. He sees to the issue of all special stores and equipment for action. When the Battalion is in action he must get in touch with the requirements of rations water and other supplies and see that they are delivered. He is responsible for the care of all Battalion stores, and that no excess baggage is carried which would make the Battalion immobile.

He has under his immediate command a Regimental QuartermasterSergeant. The Regimental Quartermaster-Sergeant understudies the Battalion Quartermaster and attends to all issues of Corps Administration. 229 stores, and superintends parties receiving or collecting stores or equipment. He supervises the work of the Company QuartermasterSergeants when with the Quartermaster's Department. He is responsible for the discipline and smartness of the Quartermaster's Department, and anybody attached to it. He has a staff of a butcher and orderlies to attend to the issuing of stores.

Being responsible for the issuance of clothing and boots, he has under him shoemakers and tailors. The Sergeant Shoemaker must continually make an inspection of the men's boots, seeing that they are kept in good repair, and that they fit properly, and issue new ones when necessary.

The Master Tailor sees to the re-fitting of all uniforms ; he fixes identification patches on all jackets, and so long as clothing can be kept serviceable he sees to repairs.

A Sergeant Cook has in each Company a Staff of four cooks, who are directly under their Company Commander, but who are advised daily by the Sergeant Cook as to the best use to be made of rations available.

The Sergeant Cook is also responsible for the efficiency of all cook wagons.

A Postal N.C.O. receives all incoming mail, delivering to Company Quartermaster-Sergeants mail for all ranks with the Battalion, and readdresses the mail for all casualties.

Transport.—The Transport Officer is responsible for the discipline and interior economy of his command. He is responsible for the condition of all animals and vehicles, which he must thoroughly understand. He sees that his horses and mules are properly groomed, watered, and fed, paying most careful attention to the shoeing, and sees that all sickness, accidents, etc., are promptly and properly attended to. He is responsible for the drill and smartness, mounted and dismounted, of his Unit, and for the horsemanship and driving abilities of his personnel. He must see that his harness and saddles are always kept in perfect condition and repair ; that his vehicles are always in good repair, well oiled and greased, and that full equipment is carried. As the Transport is largely a mirror of the Battalion, so he must inculcate in his personnel a feeling of pride and esprit de corps which will keep his wagons and horses showing to the best advantage, and instilling pride in the whole Battalion. He keeps a duty roster book, both as regards men and animals, and a careful record of all his equipment. In action he is responsible for the 230 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

transportation of rations, water, ammunition, etc., to his Battalion. He must find routes and the most suitable place to dump his loads. He must have a thorough knowledge of map reading, and be able to go to any place at any time, under all conditions, day or night, and deliver his loads. His duty is to get there, but he must not foolishly sacrifice his animals, personnel or loads, as none of them can be quickly replaced.

Out of the Line, on the march he is responsible for the transportation of all regulation baggage, and sees that no wagons are unduly loaded, and that proper march discipline is maintained by his drivers. Daily he draws and delivers rations, fuel, ordnance stores, water and other transportation as required within the Battalion.

He has a Transport Sergeant who understudies him in every respect.

The Second in Command understudies the Commanding Officer, assisting and supporting the Commanding Officer in every respect. He assists the younger officers in their duties, giving them advice whenever necessary. He has charge of regimental accounts, and supervises the running of the regimental canteens. He supervises the work of the Quartermaster and the Transport Officer, being mainly responsible for everything pertaining to the men's comfort and welfare, both in the billets and trenches. He makes arrangements for baths, and sees to the improvement of the billets and area. He supervises the cooking arrangements of the Battalion, and he purchases extra supplies to add to the rations of the men. He supervises all workshops of the Battalion, such as tailor, shoemaker and pioneers. He assists the Battalion Commander in the training when necessary.

The Commanding Officer.—Although the Commanding Officer is responsible for everybody and everything in the Battalion, he is primarily responsible for the training, for the fighting efficiency of his Unit, and for the discipline. It is his duty to develop an esprit de corps and pride in the men in themselves, and in their regiment, letting all ranks know of past achievements of the Battalion, and inculcating a desire to do even better. He holds Office daily for the disposal of offences, and for interviewing any other ranks who wish to see him.

–  –  –

must not fail to let them know when they do good work, and he must always be ready to hear and consider their views and any grievances. He is responsible for recommending their promotion.

He must continually study his N.C.O's, knowing any particular aptitude of certain of them for various work, or any who warrant accelerated promotion. He must have understudies in his Battalion for every appointment therein.

He supervises all correspondence of the Adjutant and Quartermaster, dealing personally with correspondence for higher authority. He must know everything that goes on within his Battalion and that affects his Battalion. The Commanding Officer is responsible for the War Diary, and that full and proper records are kept of the Battalion. He is responsible that all accounts are audited regularly. He must constantly study the tactical handling of weapons and men.


The G.O.C. Canadian Machine Gun Corps is the technical adviser to the Corps Commander on the tactical employment, training, allocation of Machine Gun Units and policy of Machine Gunnery in the Canadian Corps.

He watches on behalf of the Corps Commander the special interests of the Machine Gun Corps personnel as regards promotion and appointments.

He supervises the tasks of Machine Gun Units and coordinates the plans of Divisions for the action of Machine Guns in operations.

During active operations he exercises executive command over such Units of the Corps as may be placed under his orders by the Corps Commander for this purpose. During the operations of 1918 this Mobile Force was designated "Brutinel's Brigade," and consisted of the 1st and 2nd C.M.M.G. Brigades, Canadian Light Horse, Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion, T.M. Sections and Field Artillery, additional Units being attached as they were available, and the situation required.

The Staff of the C.M.G.C. consists of— One Staff Officer, who acts as Brigade Major to the G.O.C.

One Staff Captain, who looks after administration, strength, promotions, transport, etc.

One Staff Officer, who carries out the duties of Reconnaissance and Intelligence Officer.

232 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.


The Battalion is the Unit for purposes of administration and training.

The training has been thus centralised to obtain uniformity in tactics and greater efficiency in technical training.

There is no similarity between Infantry Battalions and Machine Gun Battalions, either as regards administration or tactics. A Machine Gun Battalion can be more closely compared to a Divisional Artillery both in its organisation and in its tactical distribution.

In principle the Machine Gun Battalions remain with their respective Divisions and participate in all battles, whether defensive or offensive, under the command of the G.O.C. Division.

They come, however, under the orders of the G.O.C., C.M.G.C., when there is more than one Division engaged, and the Machine Gun plans of engagement require co-ordination on. the Corps Front.

(a) Battalion Headquarters.—Owing to the fact that a Canadian Machine Gun Battalion is operated on a Divisional front, the control and administration becomes a difficult matter. For this reason the Battalion

Headquarters Staff is divided into three Departments as follows:

i. The " G " Orderly Room.

ii. The " Q " Orderly Room.

iii. The Quartermaster's Department.

Except during active operations these three departments are located together at Battalion Headquarters.

They maintain, however, their separate functions in order that, should the Battalion be ordered into action at short notice, the machinery of the Battalion will continue without interruption.

The following are the duties of each Department:— (1) G.O.R.—The Staff consists of the Adjutant, Signalling Officer, Clerks, Draughtsmen and Orderlies. It always accompanies the Commanding Officer, and during active operations is located at or near Divisional Headquarters. It controls the Battalion and is responsible for issuing of all orders, including operations, administration, training and discipline. It is also responsible for co-ordinating the Signal Communications within the Battalion.

Corps Administration. 233 (2) Q.O.R.—The Staff consists of the Assistant Adjutant, Paymaster, Clerks and Orderlies.

During active operations it is usually located with the Machine Gun Companies or Batteries in Divisional Reserve under the orders of the Second in Command of the Battalion, thus forming a Second Echelon.

All orders for the Medical Officer and Quartermaster's Department pass through this office.

It is responsible for all the records of the Battalion, including Nominal Rolls, Card System, Registers, Field Conduct Sheets and daily Routine Orders. It prepares all " A " and " Q " Returns ready for the signature of the Officer Commanding. It ensures that all orders issued by the G.O.R. affecting the rear Echelon are promptly carried out.

It is further responsible for the training and discipline of all ranks of the Battalion in its vicinity.

(3) Quartermaster's Department.—The Staff consists of the Quartermaster, Assistant Quartermaster and Clerks.

It is responsible for the correct provision of rations, fuel, forage, arms, clothing and ammunition. When the Battalion is on the move it arranges for all billets and accommodation required. During active operations it receives orders through the Q.O.R.

(b) Battalion Commander.—Under normal conditions the Officer Commanding makes his Headquarters with the Machine Gun Battalion.

Too much of his time should not be absorbed by Staff work, and in this connection his subordinates should be used freely for minor reconnaissances, etc. At the same time he must keep in close touch with the tactical situation and shoud report frequently to the General Staff of the Division.

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