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In the allotment of quarters, the General Staff, after conferring with " Q " Branch, if the tactical situation permits, decides, under the orders of the Corps Commander, the general areas to be occupied.

Further, the General Staff must be prepared to assist " A " Branch by supplying information in regard to such matters as special steps to be taken in connection with the medical and sanitary services, and so forth.

In fact, the great secret of efficient General Staff work is that a very true liaison must be kept by the General Staff with not only "A" and "Q" Branches of the Staff, but also with the Staffs of the subordinate formations and with the Staffs of the Artillery and Engineers.

Lastly, there is under the Intelligence Branch a sub-section of the Canadian Corps Survey Section known as the Topographical Corps Administration. 213 Section. This Topographical Section supplies the necessary information on maps to all formations in the Corps.

The General Staff has in this War had to deal with many strange children of the War, such as tanks, gas, aeroplane developments, sound ranging section, etc., but on the whole the duties of the General Staff have remained such as laid down in the old Staff Manuals of 1912. The principal change on the General Staff has been the tremendous development of the Intelligence Branch, a chain of " I " officers and other ranks being formed which reaches right down to Battalions.

The most important duty of the General Staff, therefore, is the early promulgation of the Intention to all branches of the Staff, i.e., to every officer shown in Appendix V., so that their various branches can get ready with Administrative, Artillery and Engineer programmes at the earliest possible moment.


The chart showing the channels of the Administrative Staff is given in Appendix V.

The Administrative Staff is divided into two distinct branches, " Q " Branch and " A " Branch, each maintaining a close liaison with the other and with the General Staff. The work of the whole is co-ordinated by the D.A. and Q.M.G., who advises the Corps Commander on all administrative matters, which, of necessity, must be compatible with the situation as represented and advertised by the General Staff.

–  –  –

To go into great detail on all these duties would fill a volume ; many of them, such as the arrangements for bathing, laundries, canteens, etc., are products of this war, and special staffs have had to be formed to organise the work ; many of them will again be met with under the functions of the various services and departments.

It will, however, be noted that whilst the General Staff deals directly only with the fighting arms, " Q " Branch of the Administrative Staff deals with all services and departments of the Corps, and it requires an administrative ability of no mean standard to co-ordinate the work of the services and departments, so as to have no hitch in the Corps in the use for which it is intended, viz., fighting.

–  –  –

Added to these two main Branches of the Staff, the Canadian Corps has an Assistant Military Secretary, whose duties include preparation of correspondence and action in dealing with the following subjects:— Staff (Officers).—Appointments, including appointments to Headquarters, Administrative Services and Departments, and Personal Appointments (Orderly Officers, A.D.C.).


Learners in Staff Duties.

Certain Regimental Appointments (Officers), e.g., Adjutants.


Lewis Gun and Intelligence Officers.

Promotions (substantive and acting).—Recommendations for officers of all Arms and Services, except Canadian Army Service Corps, which are dealt with by an officer appointed as " Officer i/c C.A.S.C. Personnel." The promulgation of A.C. and R. Lists and Draft Gazettes received from Canadian Section, G.H.Q. to Divisions and Corps Troops.

Promulgation of Command and Staffs Corps Lists to all concerned.

Gradation and seniority of officers.

Resignations of officers.

Supernumerary Officers, disposal of.

Confidential and Adverse Reports.—All officers.

Honours and Awards—" Immediate "; preparation of Honours Gazette and disposal of allotments granted for Foreign Decorations.

Temporary Commissions, including administration of allotments for Cadet Commissions notified by Headquarters, Canadians, through Canadian Section, G.H.Q.

Routine.—Correspondence with divisions, etc., including Imperial divisions attached to Corps on above subjects.

Policy.—Questions of policy initiated by Corps Commander or referred to him, arising out of the foregoing.

–  –  –

There are now only the functions of individual officers to discuss. In many cases their appointment speaks for itself, such as the Courts Martial Officer, who is the judge Advocate's representative on all General Courts Martial cases and on any Field General Court Martial where the evidence may be complicated, who reviews all proceedings before sending them to Army Headquarters, and so forth.

Branch Intelligence Officer is a Canadian Corps Officer who lives with the Squadron of the R.A.F. covering the Corps front, and with whom the Intelligence Branch communicates if they wish any particular mission carried out by the R.A.F. This officer is further an expert in Aeroplane Photographs, and transmits any information he may glean at the Squadron Headquarters to Intelligence Branch at Corps Headquarters.

Corps Camouflage Officer is responsible for the designing of camouflage, such as imitation trees for observation posts, camouflage to cover champagne machine gun emplacements, camouflage to mis-shape, etc.

Town Majors and Area Commandants were created to organise the billeting and cleanliness of areas in which troops were placed when out of the line.

Assistant Provost Marshal commands the Corps Military Police, and with his assistants is responsible for their organisation and efficiency and distribution as required. Before action, he is usually supplied with a Road Control Officer who assists him in the control of the traffic. He is in charge of the Corps Field Punishment Station, and superintends the execution of sentences of courts martial when too severe or long to be dealt with in their Units.

His main duties consist of— Prevention and detection of crime.

Arrest of offenders.

Regularity of road traffic.

Collection of stragglers during action.

Custody of prisoners of war.

Control of civil circulation.

Surveillance of persons suspected of espionage.

Corps Burial Officer co-ordinates the work of the Divisional Burial Officers, and is responsible for the general supervision of burials and cemeteries in the Corps area.

218 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

Deputy Assistant Director of Roads is responsible for the construction and maintenance of roads outside the forward area ; for this purpose he is in close liaison with the Labour Commandant at all times.

The Camp Commandant commands all details at Corps Headquarters, and is the administrative officer for Corps Troops; In the latter capacity he is responsible for the housing, rationing. clothing, messing, moves and leave of all ranks. He is also responsible for the records of all ranks and deals direct with 3rd Echelon, G.H.Q., on all matters pertaining thereto.

The Labour Commandant administers and commands, under G.O.C. Corps, all Labour (with certain exceptions) in the Canadian Corps area, inclusive of the Canadian Works Group.

His staff consists of an Assistant, an Adjutant and the necessary clerical personnel.

The Labour Commandant is responsible that all Labour in the Corps area is located and distributed in such a manner that the many and varied requirements are met and carried out in a prompt and efficient manner, and with the least possible waste of man power.

This is done by keeping in touch with the various Branches of the Staff and the representatives of all Administrative Services and Departments employing Labour, by constant personal inspections of the Labour Units in camp and at work, and by various reports, returns, etc.

The Canadian Light Railway Officer (C.L.R.O.) acts as a liaison officer between Canadian Corps and the Army Assistant Director of Light Railways (A.D.L.R.).

Generally, his functions are to assist in the development of Light Railways, having special regard to the particular requirements of the Corps.

Light Railways in the Corps are divided into—

1. Army Light Railways, which are operated by steam motive power in the rear area, and

2. Canadian Corps Tramways,- which are operated by petrol engines and operate in the forward area.

All suggestions for the construction of new lines or sidings on Light Railways in the Canadian Corps area (rear), and which are considered to be in the interests of the Corps, are investigated by the C.L.R.O. and submitted by him to the A.D.L.R. for approval before work is commenced on same.

Corps Administration. 219 All trucks required by Artillery Brigades, Ammunition Parks, R.E.

Material Parks, etc., for removal of ammunition and R.E. material from Broad Gauge Railheads to Divisional or Brigade Dumps ; also for clearing of rations and any other material for use of Corps, and trucks required for transportation of troops from one point to another in the Corps area, are looked after by the C.L.R.O. Formations requiring such trucks send in the night previous to the C.L.R.O. particulars of number of trucks required and times and places where they are required. The C.L.R.O. makes all arrangements with Army Light Railways (Central Wagon Control) for these to be placed as required.

Should there not be sufficient trucks available to meet the demand, the C.L.R.O. takes up with " Q " Branch the question of priority of material and duly notifies formations whose requirements cannot be met, in order that other arrangements may be made for transport.

The C.L.R.O. in Canadian Corps also holds the position of Field Engineer i/c Tramways, and in this respect he is directly responsible to the Chief Engineer, Canadian Corps. All construction in the forward area on Canadian Corps Tramways is referred to the Chief Engineer.

The Canadian Army Gymnastic Staff send over to France and attach to the Corps a number of Instructors. These are distributed round the Schools, Units, etc., for instructional work in Physical and Bayonet Training, and are all under the supervision of an officer who is attached to the General Staff at Corps Headquarters.

An Assistant Director of Educational Services, with assistants in each Division, has been allowed in the Establishment of the Canadian Corps. Since the Armistice, the importance of his appointment has developed enormously, and when it is realised that nearly 75,000 men of the Corps attend his classes daily the importance of his work will be appreciated.

The Corps Salvage Officer commands the Corps Troops Salvage Company and is responsible for the collection of salvage in the Corps area, and for the sorting, listing, and disposal of salvage supplied by the Divisional Salvage Companies. Usually wagons are detailed by the Reserve Park to clear back areas of salvage and often lorries are detailed from the Senior Mechanical Transport Officer. Divisional Salvage Officers are also on the establishment.

220 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

The Corps Laundry Officer makes arrangements to wash soiled garments collected from the Divisional and Corps bath houses, and to supply clean clothing to the bath houses. He usually organises area laundries for this purpose, but often has to arrange to farm out the washing to civilians.

The Canteen Officers at Corps and Divisional Headquarters arrange Corps Troops and Divisional Canteens in their respective areas. They arrange with the Senior Mechanical Transport Officer to draw their supplies at wholesale prices from the Army Expeditionary Force Canteen Distributing Centre.

–  –  –

If a claim is legitimate and does not exceed a certain sum of money, and, of course, providing no individual is to blame, the Claims Officer is empowered to adjust the claim on the spot If, however, there is any doubt as to the responsibility, or if the amount exceeds the sum referred to, all available evidence, for and against, must be submitted to the " Claims Commission " for instructions or advice. Wilful damage, if the guilty individual or Unit can be located, must be paid for by the party causing the damage.

So far all the duties have been quoted as undertaken by the Corps Staff. The branches and allotment of duties is similar in the Divisional Staffs, the Artillery, Engineer and Machine Gun Staffs, down to Brigades of Infantry and Engineers, and to Divisional Artillery and Corps Heavy Artillery Headquarters in the Artillery, except that as the numbers to be administered decrease so the Staffs decrease, until in the cases quoted, the Brigade Majors do the " G " work and the Staff Captain " I " the Intelligence, and the Staff Captains the " A " and " Q," forwarding their work to be co-ordinated and their problems to be solved by the Staff of the higher formation, if necessary.

Corps Administration. 221


The Infantry, which it will doubtless be observed is placed first of all the Branches of the Service, is the arm around which the Canadian Corps is built. It is the Infantry, with the assistance and co-operation of the auxiliary arms of the Services, the Departments, and the Staffs, which finally fulfils the ultimate duty of the Corps, viz., which fights the battle, takes the position and holds it when taken.

The principal function of the Infantry is, therefore, to fight and it is organised and administered with this object in view.

The actual fighting will be officially described in the history which is being written, and it is proposed to deal here with the functions of the organisation.

The Unit of Infantry is the Battalion, and the Battalion is divided into a Headquarters and four Companies of four Platoons each. These again are divided into four sections, each with its own Commander.

A section normally consists of from six to ten men, being considered the largest number of men which one individual can control in person, and is the fighting Unit, four of which are controlled and directed by a Platoon Commander.

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