«LONDON PRINTED BY AUTHORITY OF THE MINISTRY, OVERSEAS MILITARY FORCES OF CANADA. REPORT of the MINISTRY Overseas Military Forces of Canada LONDON ...»
The Platoon is the fighting Unit and consists of about 40 all ranks. It is organised into two distinct parts which must work together, viz., light machine gunners and bayonetmen. The latter have subsidiary arms, such as the bullet, bomb, rifle grenade, etc., but, generally speaking, the bayonet takes the position and the machine guns hold it.
of eight guns. The Battalion is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel, who has a very similar Headquarters to that of an Infantry Battalion. The Battery is, however, the tactical Unit, and is self-contained as regards command and transport.
There are also in the Corps two Motor Machine-Gun Brigades, each of five eight-gun Batteries.
(c) A Light Trench Mortar Battery forms part of each Infantry Brigade. It is composed of Infantry personnel transferred from their Units, and contains eight mortars organised into four Batteries, each of two mortars, and each under the command of a subaltern officer.
Artillery Batteries are organised into sections consisting of two guns, each section being commanded by a subaltern.
The administrative Unit is the Brigade, where the Headquarters function all important matters outside the work in action and the training for action.
The Divisional Ammunition Column is divided into three sections and the section into sub-sections. Each section is commanded by a Captain and the sub-sections by subaltern officers.
Corps troops may vary from 20,000 to 50,000 men, and to carry out the Engineer Services required the Chief Engineer has at Corps Headquarters a C.R.E. Corps Troops, assisted by an Adjutant, who administers all Canadian Engineer Units and attached Royal Engineer Units other than those of Divisions. The Canadian Engineer Units working under the C.R.E. Corps Troops are five Army Troops Companies for general engineering work, two Tramway Companies for construction, maintenance and operation of tramways, and one Artisan Company made up of returned casualties of low categories.
With each Division to carry out the Engineer Services required is an Engineer Brigade, consisting of three Battalions Canadian Engineers, and one Bridging Transport Section. The Brigade is commanded by a Colonel, with a Staff consisting of a Brigade Major, a Staff-Captain "A" and " Q," and a Staff Captain (Stores and Transport).
Corps Administration. 199 Each Engineer Battalion is divided into a Headquarters and four Companies. Three of these Companies are organised for general engineering work, and the fourth for tunnelling and mining work.
Attached to each Engineer Brigade is a Bridging Transport Section, which carries sufficient pontoon and other bridging equipment to enable 225 feet of " medium bridge " to be constructed. " Medium bridge " will carry field artillery, cavalry in half sections, or infantry in fours.
THE CAVALRY AND CYCLISTS.
The Canadian Light Horse is a Cavalry Regiment composed of a Headquarters and three Squadrons, each under the command of a Major.
Each Squadron is divided into four Troops, each of about 35 all ranks under a Subaltern Officer. The Cavalry Regimental Headquarters is similar, on a smaller scale, to a Battalion Headquarters, and administers the Regiment, dealing direct with the Corps Staff. The Troop corresponds to the Platoon, and the men are armed with the rifle and bayonet and the sword, there being a section of light machine guns with each Troop.
Besides the Canadian Light Horse there was on November 11, 1918, a Squadron of the R.N.W.M.P. with the Corps, which was organised as a Squadron of Cavalry and which dealt for administrative purposes direct with Corps Headquarters.
A Corps Cyclist Battalion was also always administered as a part of the Corps Troops. This Battalion consisted of 16 officers and 305 other ranks, and was organised as a Headquarters and three Companies on similar lines to an Infantry Battalion.
The Canadian Army Service Corps under instructions from " Q " Branch is responsible for the arrival from railhead of— (a) Ammunition at the Ammunition Refilling Points, where it is taken over by theDivisional Ammunition Column, and (b) Consumable supplies at the Headquarters of Units of the Corps.
To compete with this enormous duty there are two distinct types of transport under the Canadian Army Service Corps, viz.:— i. The Mechanical Transport.
ii. The Divisional Train.
200 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.
The Mechanical Transport of a Corps may be grouped under three heads (a) Mechanical Transport vehicles on charge of Mechanical Transport Units, which form a permanent part of the Corps.
These Units are:
1 Corps Troops Mechanical Transport Company.
1 Divisional Mechanical Transport Company for each Division.
7 Motor Ambulances per Field Ambulance.
Transport Formations have recently been authorised for and added to the Canadian Corps:— 1 Canadian Motor Machine Gun Mechanical Transport Company.
1 Canadian Engineer Mechanical Transport Company.
The latter Unit is divided into a Headquarters, two Headquarters sections and four Divisional sections. The latter are detailed for duty with the four Engineer Brigades.
The Divisional Train carries the consumable supplies from the Refilling Points to the Headquarters of Units and is divided into four Companies, one for the Divisional Troops and one for each Brigade of the Division.
Maintenance—All Mechanical Transport Formations are provided with a mobile workshop, a workshop officer, and a staff of artificers, to carry out repairs and keep the vehicles in running order. Field Ambulances are attached for maintenance and repairs to the Divisional Mechanical Transport Company workshops. Vehicles in charge of nonMechanical Transport Units are attached for maintenance by the S.M.T.O. to the various Mechanical Transport Mobile Workshops in the Corps. Vehicles that require repairs too extensive to be carried out in the mobile workshops without delaying the ordinary current work, are evacuated to the heavy repair shops at the base or on the Lines of Communication, and replacements are automatically supplied.
Control—All the mechanical transport in a Corps is con trolled by the Corps through the S.M.T.O., who receives his instructions from " Q " Branch of the Corps Headquarters Staff. In spite of their designation, Divisional Mechanical Transport Companies are Corps Troops and in no way under the control of the Division whose number they bear. There is a Headquarters to these Units known as Canadian Corps Mechanical Transport Column composed of a Major, Adjutant, Demands Officer (M.T.), and Artillery Officer. This Headquarters works in conjunction with the S.M.T.O. and has its offices with him, thereby doing away with a lot of unnecessary clerical work and correspondence and giving the quickest of service.
THE MEDICAL SERVICES.Individual officers of the Medical Services are attached to practically every Unit of the Canadian Corps. These officers are called the Regimental or Battery Medical Officers and have a small staff of C.A.M.C. personnel under them for water or first aid purposes.
202 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.
Apart from these Regimental Medical Officers, the following Units are organised:— Field Ambulances—There are three Field Ambulances with each Division and one with the Corps at large. The latter operates the Corps Rest Station.
A Field Ambulance is a highly mobile Unit which moves with, and just back of, the front line. It has 11 officers, including a Dental Officer, and 238 other ranks, seven motor ambulance cars, three horsed ambulance wagons, and complete tentage and transport for its equipment.
These Units are so organised as to permit their division into three sections, each complete in itself in every way. By this means a Field Ambulance Unit can operate one, two, or three dressing stations simultaneously.
Rest Stations, Corps and Divisional—These stations are a development, for most part, of trench warfare, in which troops remain stationary for long periods. They are operated by Field Ambulances.
Their locations while impermanent, unlike locations of Field Ambulance Dressing Stations, are not changed as a rule while the Corps occupies a certain sector of the Front. They are usually located in a back part of the Corps or Divisional area.
They are organised so as to provide accommodation and medical care for minor cases and include special clinics for certain classes of cases.
Corps Dental Laboratory—(The Dental Service of the Corps is an integral part of the Medical Services.) A Corps Dental Laboratory is peculiar to the Canadian Corps and has proven a valuable adjunct of the Service. It is organised as the principal dental centre of the Corps, and has a complete staff of dental mechanics for the manufacture of dentures of all sorts.
Motor Ambulance Convoy—This is a Mobile Medical Unit with three officers and 122 other ranks. It has 50 motor ambulance cars and its organisation includes a complete mobile workshop for all ordinary repairs.
Sanitary Sections—A Sanitary Section is a Mobile Medical Unit with one officer and 27 other ranks. Its organisation provides for the operation of a workshop where sanitary equipment is constructed.
Corps Administration. 203
THE ORDNANCE SERVICES.
The Ordnance Services of the Canadian Corps are directed by the A.D.O.S. at Corps Headquarters, who has as his assistants a D.A.D.O.S.
and an officer for ammunition duties, and a staff of one Warrant Officer, one Staff Sergeant, and two Clerks. The A.D.O.S. also administers all C.O.C. personnel in France, outside the Corps.
With each Division there is a D.A.D.O.S. with the rank of Major, an Ordnance Officer, who is a Captain or Lieutenant, four Warrant Officers and ten other ranks.
With Corps Troops there is a D.A.D.O.S. (Major), an Ordnance Officer, one Warrant Officer, and nine other ranks.
In addition to the above C.O.C. personnel, each Division has an Armourer Sergeant-Major, each Infantry Brigade an Armourer Quartermaster-Sergeant, and each Battalion an Armourer Staff Sergeant, all of whom belong to the C.O.C.
Each Divisional Armourers' Shop also, has two watchmakers for the repair of watches, binoculars, compasses and clinometers. Ordnance Corps Troops also has two watchmakers.
For the repair of guns (Field, Heavy and Siege) and their carriages and mountings, and repair of horse transport vehicles of all kinds, there are in the Corps two light Ordnance Mobile Workshops, and a Medium Ordnance Mobile Workshop.
These Ordnance Mobile Workshops are each in charge of an Inspector of Ordnance Machinery with a Staff of artificers, turners, fitters, hammermen, wheelers, etc.
Each Brigade of Field Artillery and each Battery of Heavy or Siege Artillery has an Armament Officer, C.O.C. attached for minor repairs and the general supervision of the mechanical details of their equipment.
No stocks are maintained at the Front other than a small reserve of box respirators and containers, steel helmets, a few odds and ends in constant demand such as camp kettles, etc., and a few rifles in the Divisional Armourers' Shops. Each Army, however, has a Gun Park where a stock of guns and carriages, trench mortars, machine guns and spare parts and accessories is maintained.
204 Overseas Military Forces of Canada
The Canadian Signal Service consists of the following Units:— One Corps Signal Company.
Four Divisional Signal Companies.
5th Canadian Divisional Artillery Signals.
8th Army Brigade C.F.A. Signal Sub-section.
Canadian Corps Signal School.
The Corps Signal Company includes, besides the Headquarters, one Wireless, two Motor Airline and four Cable Sections, one Heavy Artillery and three Signal Sub-sections for the Canadian Heavy Artillery Headquarters and Heavy Artillery Brigades. Under Corps arrangements two other sections have been organised and attached to the Corps Signal Company for the inter-communication of the Canadian Survey Section and two Tramway Companies.
The Divisional Signal Company includes a Headquarters Section, Wireless Section and two Cable Sections, together with Signal Sections for the Divisional Artillery Headquarters, Artillery and Infantry Brigades, and for the Divisional Machine Gun Battalion. Canadian Engineer Brigade Signal Sections have not yet been authorised, and added to the Divisional Signal Companies.
The Divisional Signal Company is responsible for communication to flanking divisions and all communication to and within the Artillery and Infantry Brigades, and other Units within the Divisional Area.
The Gas Services have been organised to combat the effects of poisonous gas. Appendix IV. shows how the service extends over the whole Corps. Each Gas Officer has a small staff of other ranks to assist him in his duties.
The Veterinary Services have officers with formations as shown in Appendix IV. Each of these officers has a small staff of Veterinary personnel under him. The Mobile Veterinary Sections and the Canadian Corps Veterinary Evacuating Station are the Units at which sick or wounded horses receive treatment, and through which they pass for evacuation to the Base, if it is considered inadvisable to treat them in the field.
PAY SERVICES.The Canadian Army Pay Corps in the Field has to do with the administration of matters relating to Pay and Allowances of all ranks. For the organisation and chain of responsibility vide Appendix IV. Each Paymaster has an other rank attached to him for clerical work, and the Field Cashiers have a small staff.
There are 28 Army and Field Post Offices with the Canadian Corps, all of which are mobile, located as follows Canadian Corps Headquarters
Canadian Corps Troops
Canadian Corps Reinforcement Camp................. 1 Divisional Headquarters