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Headquarters, Canadian Forestry Corps and Corps Depot (Reserve Unit), reinforcing:— Paris Detachment, Canadian Forestry Corps, Headquarters Central Group No 1 District Headquarters (No. 1 District Workshop), Companies Nos. 20, 30, 32, 41, 42, 43, 44, and 54. No. 2 District Headquarters (No. 2 District Workshop), Companies Nos. 14, 19, 23, 24, 32. and 34, Headquarters Jura Group. No. 5 District Statistics-Adjutant-General's Branch. 63 Headquarters (No. 5 District Workshop), No. 2 Construction Company, Companies Nos. 21, 22, 36, 39, 40, 47, 50, 52, 57, 58,

70. No. 6 District Headquarters, Companies Nos. 28, 51, 56, 69, and 77, Headquarters Bordeaux Group. No. 4 District Headquarters, Companies Nos. 27, 55, 78, 79, and 80. No. 12 District Headquarters (No. 12 District Workshop), Companies Nos. 15, 45, 46, 48, 49, 53, 59, 60, 71, 72, 73, 74. Headquarters No. 9 District (No. 9 District Workshop), Companies Nos. 1, 2 9, 25, 26, 29, 35, and 37, Headquarters Marne Group. No. 10 District Headquarters, Companies Nos. 31, 33, and 70. No. 11 District Headquarters, Nos. 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 75 Companies (c)—Reorganisation of, and Increase in, Existing Units in the Field.

–  –  –



(a) Organisation.

(b) Surplus Stores.

(c) Ordnance Inspection Department.

(d) Ross Rifles.

(e) Artillery Vehicles.

(f) Fifth Divisional Equipment.

(g) Hospitals.

(h) Part Worn Clothing.

(i) Closing of Ashford Depot.

(j) Officers' Repayment Store.









–  –  –

In order to simplify the consideration of the extensive and complex duties of the Quartermaster-General's Branch as a whole, the activities of the different Departments will be reviewed in detail in the following order:— Canadian Army Service Corps.

Canadian Ordnance Corps.

Quartermaster-General's Inspection Department.

Ocean and Rail Transport Department.

Canadian Postal Corps.

Canadian Army Veterinary Corps.

Printing, Stationery, and Typewriting Services.

Canadian Salvage Corps.

Canadian Engineer Services.

Quartermaster-General's Board of Officers.

War Trophies.

Every endeavour has also been made in submitting this report to reflect the conditions under which the activities of the QuartermasterGeneral's Branch have been, and are still, carried on, both in England and in France, and to trace the various steps which have made both for efficiency and economy. It should be realised that for a very considerable period the various Departments of this Branch were required to assume duties and responsibilities entirely outside the scope laid down by the Military Regulations which defined its responsibilities. In the progress of nearly every Department, therefore, it has been necessary, at times, to abandon rigid Military Regulations, not only to overcome problems of an emergency nature but in order to develop methods which seemed best suited to new situations.

The pursuit of this policy, however, has brought about no conflict with the Imperial Authorities, nor has it in any way jeopardised its harmonious relationships with the various 72 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

Departments of the War Office. On the contrary, it has led to a unity of action and produced most beneficial results. For instance, the conditions which prevailed at the time of the arrival of the first Canadian Troops in England rendered the Canadians entirely dependent on the Imperial Forces for supplies, but the system had not really become sufficiently developed to ensure that rapidity of action so necessary in conditions of war.

It therefore became both urgent and necessary that the Overseas Military Forces of Canada should be in a position to make a direct purchase of commodities not readily procurable from the Imperial Army Service. This change entailed a considerable increase both in personnel and in machinery, as, owing to the fact that the Canadians could not command the transport they required, local sources of supply had to be discovered and exploited. In addition, of course, it was necessary to create a proper system of accounting in order that the public funds should be safeguarded, and the Quartermaster-General's Inspection Department was established to ensure a complete check on all stores and ensure the

audit of all charges:

In regard to the Canadian Army Service Corps it may be said that its administration has developed with its activities, that it has adapted itself to every changing condition and that under the present Director of Supply and Transport it has reached a pitch of efficiency deserving every credit.

The Canadian Ordnance Corps has also met every need of the Canadian Troops in respect to equipment and stores, and under the present Director of Ordnance Services has reached a high standard of efficiency. One of the most serious problems with which it has had to deal was that of surplus stores. It will be seen from the special section devoted to the Canadian Ordnance Corps that the sum of £1,097,538 8s.

10d., has been reclaimed for the Canadian public funds by the disposal of surplus stores alone ; and this amount will be considerably augmented by similar transactions of which details cannot be given at the moment.

Other departmental work of the Quartermaster-General's Branch was invariably carried on with a view to securing the highest possible state of efficiency, and special attention should be drawn to the Ocean and Rail Transport Department, which has had to deal with many difficulties of transportation, Quartermaster-General's Branch. 73 difficulties which were immeasurably increased when the sudden cessation of hostilities produced the new problems associated with Demobilisation.

The economies detailed in respect to the operations of the Stationery, Printing, and Typewriting Services are worthy of attention, and it should be pointed out that these economies were largely made possible by the authority to instal an adequate printing plant, and to increase the Establishment to a strength requisite to the growing needs of the Service.

Very considerable economies have also resulted from the activities of the Salvage Corps. The sales of reclaimed material have amounted to $190,000.00 during the ten months of the Salvage Corps' activities, while the educational measures adopted to prevent wastefulness have, undoubtedly, proved a valuable asset not only to the Service as a whole, but to the individual soldier.


Responsibilities.—The Canadian Army Service Corps is administered by the Director of Supply and Transport, whose Headquarters are located at Argyll House, London, and whose administration and responsibility covers the operations of the Canadian Army Service Corps both in England and in France. In England the Director of Supply and Transport is directly responsible to the Quartermaster-General for the provision of Supply and Transport and Barrack Services as required by the troops in accordance with Canadian Regulations as they are promulgated from time to time. In England, too, in addition to the general functions of his appointment, the Director of Supply and Transport is responsible for the messing of the troops, the administration of the sale of food supplies to soldiers and their dependants, and the very considerable business connected with the sale of tobacco.

In France, by reason of the Capitation Agreement with the War Office, it is unnecessary for the Canadian Authorities to exercise Accountant Control over the Army Service Corps issues in the Field. In France, therefore, the main duties of the Canadian Army Service Corps centre on the Transport and Supply Service in accordance with Army Regulations and the various other duties laid down by Superior Military Authority.

Operations in the Field.—The operations of the Canadian Army Service Corps in the Field render it necessary to keep in 74 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

close and constant touch with all other Branches of the Service. This involves an accurate knowledge of the location of all Units being served, as the supply and delivery of food, forage, and light supplies are its daily responsibilities to all Units. The Army Service Corps Transport must also ensure the Artillery its supply of ammunition, the Ordnance Corps its requirements of equipment and clothing, and the Engineers' Services their supply of material. The evacuation of the sick and wounded, the transfer of baggage, salvage, lumber, and other stores, are also among the many duties of the Transport Service in the Field.

While, therefore, the Canadian Army Service Corps retains its own effective co-ordination as a working Unit it must, necessarily, be attached to each Branch of the Service, and, obviously, its operations require the provision and maintenance of ample transport facilities, while the necessary repairs to hundreds of motor cars, lorries, and vehicles are provided for by the Establishment of. Mobile Workshops, where wastage is reduced to a minimum by the practical work of its Mechanical Sections.

Feeding the Troops in England.—The Canadian Army Service Corps obtains supplies from the Imperial Supply Depots and from the Army and Navy Canteen Board, and these are drawn on a daily ration basis in order to avoid all possible waste.

The feeding of the Canadian Troops on a scientific basis has received close and special attention, and every effort has been made to secure the best results both dietetically and economically. An Inspector of Catering, who is a Dietetic Expert, was employed to decide the caloric value of various foods and the proper manner in which they should be alternated.

A School of Cookery was established for the systematic training of men in the arts of the cooking best suited to the men's needs both in England and in France. In the preparation of Diet Sheets, too, technical knowledge has been used in the preparation of special dishes, the nutritive qualities of which a careful analysis has been made and scheduled. In other ways the range of diet provided for under ordinary Military Regulations has been very considerably extended. The diet of the Canadian Troops, for instance, has been supplemented by frozen fish imported direct from Canada, and of this three meals are provided weekly. In fact, every possible endeavour has been made to ensure that a sufficient quantity, variety, and food value are to be found


Quartermaster-General's Branch. 75 in every meal, and the system of inspection employed is a further guarantee that the system is satisfactorily carried out.

The economic advantage resulting from the employment of these scientific methods is also notable. The preparation of the Diet Sheets in advance furnishes a basis on which exact calculations can be made of all food required for immediate use and in some cases for future use. In this way it is possible not only to forestall emergency prices being charged in the markets, but it has also been possible to establish a basis of claim for the refund of duty on dutiable supplies as they are called for from time to time. By reason of this attention to diet cost and the close scrutiny exercised over the value of the--different foods used, the average daily cost of the ration issued to Canadian Troops in England during the year 1917 was 14.142d., and during 1918 14.9207d. These figures do not take into consideration the value of the duty refunded on dutiable commodities, or the amount realised by the sale of by-products Transport.—Efficiency of transport has rightly been regarded as one of the most necessary requirements of the Service, and the following details of the Transport Establishments in France and in England are of interest:— In France the Establishment has been based on the Imperial scale and consisted mainly of:— 4 Divisional Trains (Horse Transport).

2 Army Auxiliary Horse Transport Companies.

4 Divisional Mechanical Transport Companies.

1 Corps Troops Mechanical Transport Company.

1 Company 5th Divisional Train.

5th Divisional Artillery Mechanical Transport Detachment.

1 Canadian Army Service Corps Engineer Mechanical Transport Company.

1 Motor Machine Gun Mechanical Transport Company.

In England, where up to the time of Demobilisation troops were more or less stationary, the scale was naturally not so high, although on an average there were about 122,000 troops to be served. The original horse transport of the Units in England was abandoned in 1916, when the whole service was undertaken by the Canadian Army Service Corps, which, though from that date it had to serve a steadily, increasing 76 Overseas Military Forces of Canada.

number of troops, has by means of careful organisation and strict economy, contrived to afford an efficient service with transport equipment facilities, which have gradually been reduced.

Barrack Services.—These are divided into two distinct divisions as follows:— (a) Barrack Equipment;

(b) Barrack Consumable Stores.

Barrack equipment is issued by the Imperial Authorities, and of this strict account is kept.

Consumable barrack stores are the charge of the Canadian Army Service Corps, which issues them and accounts for them as regular or emergency demands dictate.

In respect to this latter service it was found that greater efficiency and economy could be effected by the modification of the regular Army scales and system to modern and practical business methods. The Imperial scale of issues was adopted as far as practicable, though for certain buildings, used as Hospitals and not originally designed for the purpose, special allowances are authorised.

Repayment Issues.—In the spring of 1916 a system of issues on repayment to the Canadian Troops and their dependants was inaugurated at Shorncliffe.

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