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«LONDON PRINTED BY AUTHORITY OF THE MINISTRY, OVERSEAS MILITARY FORCES OF CANADA. REPORT of the MINISTRY Overseas Military Forces of Canada LONDON ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

REPORT of the MINISTRY

Overseas Military Forces

of Canada

LONDON

PRINTED BY AUTHORITY OF THE MINISTRY, OVERSEAS

MILITARY FORCES OF CANADA.

REPORT of the MINISTRY

Overseas Military Forces

of Canada

LONDON

PRINTED BY AUTHORITY OF THE MINISTRY, OVERSEAS

MILITARY FORCES OF CANADA.

iii Minister, Overseas Military Forces of Canada THE HONOURABLE SIR EDWARD KEMP, K.C.M.G., M.P.

Deputy Minister COLONEL G. F. HARRINGTON.

Assistant Deputy Minister :

LIEUT.-COLONEL T. GIBSON, D.S.O.

Chief of the General Staff LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR R. E. W. TURNER, V.C., K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O.

Adjutant-General ;

MAJOR-GENERAL P. E. THACKER, C.B., C.M.G.

Quartermaster-General BRIGADIER-GENERAL D. M. HOGARTH, C.M.G., D.S.O.

Accountant-General ;

COLONEL W. R. WARD, C.B.E.

Director-General of Medical Services MAJOR-GENERAL G. L. FOSTER, C.B.

Paymaster-General BRIGADIER-GENERAL J. G. Ross, C.M.G.

(642) A2 iv

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

———

FACING

PAGE THE GLORY THAT WAS YPRES. (Frontispiece.) CANADIAN TROOPS IN TRAINING

CANADIAN CADETS IN TRAINING

THE KING AND THE YOUNG CANADIANS

THE TAKING OF VIMY RIDGE

"AN ARMY MARCHES ON ITS STOMACH"

CANADIAN DIET WAS THE BEST IN ANY ARMY

AN ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION

CANADIAN TROOPS WERE KEPT FIT AND IN GOOD SPIRITS BY SPORT

AEROPLANE PHOTOGRAPH. PANORAMIC VIEW OF WIRE (DROCOURT–

QUEANT LINE)

NEAR VIEW OF WIRE, DEFENCES DROCOURT-QUEANT LINE

GOING INTO BATTLE.—ARRAS

AN ABIDING RECORD OF THE ENEMY'S

WANTON DESTRUCTION

THE HAND OF THE HUN IN CAMBRAI

ONE OF THE LAST STAGES ON THE ROAD TO VICTORY

A GREAT WELCOME TO THE CANADIANS AT MONS

WITH THE CANADIANS ON THE RHINE

"WASTE NOT, WANT NOT" ON THE BATTLEFIELD

ENTER THE CAVALRY

CANADIAN AIR-FIGHTERS IN FRANCE

CANADIAN LIGHT RAILWAYS HAD MANY USES

THE TRIUMPH OF THE CANADIAN LIGHT RAILWAY SYSTEM

CANADIAN LUMBERMEN IN FRANCE

WITH THE CANADIAN ARMY MEDICAL CORPS IN FRANCE

ENTRAINING WOUNDED CANADIANS FOR " BLIGHTY "

DENTAL PARLOUR IN THE FIELD

CANADIAN CHAPLAIN ON DUTY IN THE FIELD

FIELD PAYMASTERS' OPEN AIR OFFICE

EDUCATING CANADIAN TROOPS FOR RE-ENTRY INTO CIVIL LIFE

CANADA SENDS HER AID TO THE ALLIES

THE Y.M.C.A. FOLLOWED THE TROOPS TO THE LINE

v

LIST OF SKETCHES, MAPS, ETC.

———

FACING

PAGE SKETCH No. 1.-Showing Sectors held by the Canadian Corps.

Jan. 1-March 24, 1918

SKETCH No. 2.-Showing Northern Coal Fields and Communications

SKETCH No. 3.-Showing Defence Scheme, Vimy-Arras Sector

SKETCH No. 4.-Showing Area of Operations, 1st C.M.M.G. Bde. March, 1918

SKETCH No. 5.-Showing Situation of Canadian Troops at Noon, 30/3/18

SKETCH No. 6-Showing Situation of Canadian Troops. 8/4/18

SKETCH No. 7.-Situation on Western Front. 20./3/18-15/7/18

SKETCH No. 8.-Move of Canadian Corps to Amiens Front

SKETCH No. 9.-Showing Ground Captured by Canadian Corps.

Aug. 8-Aug. 17, 1918

SKETCH No. 9A.-Showing general situation following the Advance toward Roye

SKETCH No. 10.-Showing Attacks of Canadian Corps, and Hindenburg Defence System

SKETCH No. 11.-Advances made by Canadian Corps. Aug. 26Oct. 11, 1918

SKETCH No. 12.-Advances made by Canadian Corps. Oct. 11Nov. 11, 1918

SKETCH No. 13.-The Advance to the Rhine

vii

CONTENTS.

——— PAGE PREFACE

INTRODUCTION

CONTROL OF CANADIAN FORCES (CANADIAN SECTION, G.H.Q.)

THE GENERAL STAFF. (See separate Index, page 7)

THE ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S BRANCH. (See separate Index, page 25)

THE QUARTERMASTER-GENERAL'S BRANCH. (See separate Index, page 69)

OPERATIONS OF THE CANADIAN CORPS, 1918

PART I.

JANUARY 1 TO MARCH 21

MARCH 21 TO MAY 7

MAY 7 TO JULY 15

PART II.

JULY 15 TO NOVEMBER 11

PART III.

NOVEMBER 11 TO DECEMBER, 1918

THE ORGANISATION, ADMINISTRATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE

CANADIAN CORPS. (See separate Index, page 193)

PROPOSED RE-ORGANISATION OF THE CANADIAN CORPS

OPERATIONS OF THE CANADIAN CAVALRY BRIGADE (1918)

CANADIANS IN THE ROYAL AIR FORCE

CANADIAN AIR FORCE

CANADIAN RAILWAY TROOPS

CANADIAN FORESTRY CORPS

CANADIAN TROOPS OUTSIDE THE CANADIAN CORPS

CANADIAN TANK BATTALION

CANADIAN ARMY MEDICAL CORPS. (See separate Index, page 379)

CANADIAN ARMY DENTAL CORPS

CHAPLAIN SERVICES

ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL'S BRANCH

CANADIAN ARMY PAY CORPS

THE GENERAL AUDITOR'S DEPARTMENT

CANADIAN RECORD OFFICE

ESTATES BRANCH





OVERSEAS PURCHASING COMMITTEE

viii

CONTENTS—continued.

PAGE THE CANADIAN MILITARY FUNDS TRUST

NAVY AND ARMY CANTEENS

CANADIAN WAR RECORDS

OVERSEAS DISPOSAL BOARD

INTERNED PRISONERS OF WAR (HOLLAND)

INTER-ALLIED PERMANENT COMMITTEE FOR DISABLED SOLDIERS

KHAKI UNIVERSITY OF CANADA

DISTRIBUTION OF INFORMATION RELATING TO CIVIL RE-ESTABLISHMENT............ 483 THE CANADIAN RED CROSS SOCIETY

Y.M.C.A.

NON-MILITARY ORGANISATIONS

DEMOBILISATION. (See separate Index, page 515)

ix

–  –  –

——— During the years in which the Empire was at War, Canada's share steadily increased until the little Force which crossed the Atlantic in 1914 had developed into a mighty organization whose activities extended into every sphere of military effort.

I have, therefore, thought it proper to submit a report of these activities to Parliament, and through it to the people of Canada, in the hope that it may prove of interest to them.

The report which follows does not presume to be an exhaustive account of all such activities. These are so numerous and so varied in their nature that it would be an almost impossible task to prepare a complete record of them at this stage. An endeavour, however, has been made to make a general survey of many matters which came under the surveillance of this Ministry, chiefly during the year 1918. In view of the purpose of the report, details and language of a technical nature have been avoided as much as possible.

I welcome this opportunity of expressing to the Forces who have served in all theatres and in all capacities my heartfelt appreciation of their magnificent achievements. Wherever a stern or difficult task had to be performed, wherever the fight was fiercest, Canadian troops were in the forefront, by their valour, patience and skill, upholding and increasing a renown which will endure for all time.

Further, I would express my thanks to those in charge of the administration and training of our Forces, x both in France and in England. By their efficiency and wholehearted endeavour our victories were made possible, and they conclusively proved to the world that the citizen soldier, imbued with the spirit of loyalty and selfdenial, could be the equal of those who had made war a life-long study.

Finally, on behalf of the Overseas Forces, I wish to convey to Parliament and to the people of Canada, the grateful thanks of the Forces for all that has been done on their behalf, and for the constant solicitude which has ever been displayed in their welfare.

The many sacrifices cheerfully undertaken so that our soldiers might not lack the wherewithal to enable them to carry the war to a successful conclusion did not pass unnoticed, but, on the contrary, were ever an inspiration urging them to still greater deeds.

A. E. KEMP.

xi

–  –  –

——— The activities of the Overseas Forces of Canada have been so manifold and have spread themselves over so wide a field of effort that it is no easy matter to publish a report which may be confidently stated to cover every aspect and phase of them.

To obviate as much as possible the possibility of omission, this report has been constructed and arranged in sections, a section being allotted to the work performed by each administrative Branch or Department. So also, sections are allotted to the activities of the combatant and non-combatant troops, special sections being devoted to those matters which it is thought will be of particular interest to the Canadian people.

Before proceeding to deal with these in detail, it seems proper in this Introduction to explain generally the system under which our Overseas Forces are administered, and to make a brief review of some of the outstanding features of the year 1918.

The Overseas Forces are administered by the Minister, Overseas Military Forces of Canada, the offices of the Ministry being situated in London.

To assist him in his duties the Minister has his military staff, consisting of the heads of the various Branches and Departments of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, who, for the greater part, are accommodated in London. This staff, along with the Ministry, practically constitutes an Overseas Canadian War Office ; for it should be borne in mind that with the exception of active operations in the Field, which, of necessity, come under the direction of British General Headquarters, Canada's Forces are an entirely autonomous body, all questions affecting their administration, organisation, promotions, pay, etc., having to receive the sanction of the Minister before any action can be taken.

The year 1918 was one of great activity in the history of the Canadian Forces, and will for ever stand out as one which witnessed the culmination of Canada's claim to military greatness. The year 1917 had seen the Canadian Corps achieve the seemingly impossible in the capture of Vimy Ridge, Hill 70, and the Passchendaele Ridge. The year 1918 saw

xii Introduction.

them initiate the final counter Offensive in front of An-dens, and lead the way to ultimate victory through the " impregnable " Hindenburg line.

The history of the Offensives will be found in the chapters relating to the Corps and Cavalry Brigade, and it is not necessary to enlarge upon this engrossing subject here.

Benefiting from the experience of former years, the Overseas Administration instituted in the year 1918 a considerable number of changes in organisation, tending towards a greater efficiency in the conduct of Canadian affairs Overseas generally, in the methods of training and maintaining the troops, and towards a reduction of the personnel necessary for that purpose. Important among these were the reduction in the number of Reserve Battalions, Regimental Depots, and Reserve Training Brigades in England, and the release of the Staffs of the Units so dispensed with for other purposes. For example, out of the 57 Infantry Reserve Battalions which existed on January 1, 1917, only 15 remained on June 1, 1918. The saving in Staffs effected by these reductions is self evident.

So also the number of Officers and Other Ranks employed at Headquarters was, in the last two years, cut almost in half, notwithstanding the continuous increase in Canada's Overseas Forces ;

and in the same spirit Canadian military establishments have been steadily reviewed and amended, no less than 111 establishments having been reviewed and 128 amendments dealt with.

One of the most noteworthy innovations of the past year was the creation of the Overseas Military Council. This was, on the submission of the Minister, authorised by an Order in Council, dated April 11, 1918.

The purpose of this Council is through its meetings and deliberations to bring into closer co-operation the different departments of the Administration and to advise the Minister upon any subjects on which he may ask its advice. It is constituted as follows Chairman, the Minister ;

Vice-Chairman, the Deputy Minister ; Members, Chief of the General Staff, Adjutant-General, Quartermaster-General and the AccountantGeneral, with the DirectorGeneral of Medical Services and the Paymaster-General as Associate Members.

Another important change was the establishment of a Canadian Section at British General Headquarters, France. This Section is a branch of the Ministry situated at the Headquarters of the General Officer Commanding the British Forces

Introduction. xiii

in the Field, and its purpose is to represent the Minister there. It consists of a General Officer in Charge, who has under him such staff as is necessary to enable him to carry out his duties. In addition to being the representative of the Minister at General Headquarters and the channel of communication between him and those Headquarters, the Section is also the channel of communication between the heads of Canadian Formations in the Field and the Minister in certain matters. It is responsible under the Minister for such supervision, as it may be charged with, over the various Canadian Administrative Services and Departments in the Field, and is empowered to check such executive administration as may be determined on from time to time by the Minister, with regard to the control of the personnel of the Canadian Forces in the Field in accordance with arrangements made between the Ministry, the War Office, and General Headquarters. As a result of the establishment of this Section, matters which were previously referred to General Headquarters, and dealt with by them, are now, with a few exceptions, dealt with by the Canadian Section. The establishment of this Section has been the means of saving much time and correspondence.

Another important result of the creation of this Section is that supervision can now be exercised over the various Canadian Organisations, not part of the Canadian Corps, which are widely distributed throughout France and Belgium.



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