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«Changing Polar Regions 25th International Congress on Polar Research March 17-22, 2013, Hamburg, Germany German Society for Polar Research Edited by ...»

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09:00 – 09:15 Eingeladener Vortrag Reinhard A. Krause (Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven) - Koch / Wegener - eine denkwürdige Forschungsreise quer durch Nordgrönland, 1912/13

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09:30 – 09:45 Rainer Lehmann (Freie Waldorfschule Hannover-Bothfeld) - Sechs Jahre Coole Klassen – was wurde erreicht, wie geht es weiter?

09:45 – 10:00 Monika Kallfelz (Pfalzmuseum für Naturkunde, Bad Dürkheim) Spannender Unterricht live aus dem ewigen Eis – Lehrerbegleitung Polarstern ANT XXVIII / 2 (2011/12 Kapstadt- Neumayer- Kapstadt) 10:00 – 10:15 Gerto Bal (Realschule Plus St. Martin, Kelberg) - Authentisches Lernen und die lebenslangen Folgen

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11:15 – 11:30 Thees Dornheim (Thor-Heyerdahl-Gymnasium, Kiel) - GANOVEX X als Geographielehrer in die Antarktis 11:30 – 12:00 Franz Tessensohn (Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover) - Brückenprobleme zwischen Wissenschaft und Schule. Ein kritischer Erfahrungsbericht von „Coole Klassen“

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12:15 – 12:30 Birgit Sattler (University of Innsbruck), M. Tilg, C. Kohstall, M. C.

Storrie-Lombardi – L.I.F.E. (Laser Induced Fluorescent Emission) as non-invasive tool to assess phototrophic pigments in ice ecosystems 13:45 – 14:00 Ivan Parnikoza (Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics NAS of Ukraine), Iryna Ozheredova, Natalyia Miryuta, Iryna Kozeretska, Jerzy Smykla, Viktor Kinakh - Comparative analysis of different parameters of Deschampsia antarctica population sucess in one polar season 14:30 – 15:30 DGP-Mitgliederversammlung

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"Changing Polar Regions" - 25th International Congress on Polar Research 2013 ESF-IMCOAST: HOW GLACIAL MELTING AFFECTS AN ANTARCTIC

COASTAL ECOSYSTEM

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Rapid climatic change of the coastal (eco-)system has been observed within the past 20 years at King-George Island (KGI, South Shetland archipelago). The island at the Northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula lies in the area showing the most dramatic trend of recent global warming. Continuous measuring programs were started in 1991 and involved Argentine-German teams collaborating at Dallmann laboratory on Carlini Station (former Jubany Station at KGI). ESF-IMCOAST(2010-1013)is an international programmewhich takes an interdisciplinary approach relating causes to effects within the complex scenario of observed system change. Primary drives that connect climate events to ecosystem change are the rapid retreat of the coastal glaciers and the resulting release of melt water and ablated inorganic sediments into the coastal environment. IMCOAST coordinates European and South American cooperation in glaciological, geological and biological teams conducting field and experimental investigations, remote sensing and modeling, and continues hydrographical and biological monitoring. Importantly, data from the past 20 years of investigations have been sustainably archived (PANGAEA). A follow-up project IMCONet has been granted (Expertise Network in FP7, 2013-2016) and has the

following objectives:

To quantify variability and changes in fresh water budgets in coastal • ecosystems and to provide the physical boundary conditions for geochemical, sedimentological and biophysical research Understand the effect of glacial retreat on sub-glacial and land run-off • dynamics in the past and at present Analyse carbon recycling in the sediment surface of the coastal systems with • and without impact of sedimentation, and the bentho-pelagic coupling in KGI coastal food webs This talk will provide an overview of ongoing IMCOAST research and current results.

"Changing Polar Regions" - 25th International Congress on Polar Research 2013 THE ROLE OF ORGANIC MATTER AND IRON OXIDES IN TRACE

METALS DISTRIBUTION IN PERMAFROST-AFFECTED SOILS,

NORTHERN SIBERIA, RUSSIA

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Organic matter is the universal soil colloid that is capable of forming organo-mineral complexes binding the majority of trace metals. The amount and distribution of iron oxides are known to influence soil properties such as anions adsorption and pollutant retention in soils. In arctic environments these two major compounds act as geochemical barriers that regulate ecosystem metal flows and protect the sensitive environments from farther migration of trace elements. This is especially important since the Arctic ecosystems are considered to be very sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. However, predicted global warming together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes, and enhance leaching and migration of trace metals in upper layers of permafrost-affected soils. This study characterizes background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its hinterland in Northern Siberia (73.5˚ N – 69.5˚ N), representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on total element contents of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. Highest concentrations of the majority of the measured elements were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) in the Lena River Delta. Correlation analyses of trace metal concentrations and soil-chemical and soil physical properties of permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta Region showed that the main factors controlling the trace metal distribution in these soils are organic matter content and iron oxides contents, as well as soil texture. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed the significant relationship between the Zn, As, Ni and Pb concentrations and iron oxides in the top horizons and in the bottom horizons. Occurrence of organic matter contributed mainly to Cd binding in top soils and Cu binding in bottom horizons. Observed ranges of the background concentrations of majority of trace elements were similar to background levels reported for other pristine arctic areas and did not exceed mean global background concentrations examined for the continental crust as well as for the world’s soils.





The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) version 1.0 is the first polar Digital Bathymetric Model (DBM) covering the entire Southern Ocean up to 60° S. It is going to be available to the public to serve as a base data set to several groups in Antarctic research, i.e. oceanographers, geophysicists and biologists. Just as its Arctic equivalent the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) the IBCSO was initiated as a General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) regional mapping project. The project is endorsed by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). The IBCSO steering committee is an Expert Group of the Standing Scientific Group of Geosciences (SSG-GS) of SCAR and works in collaboration with the IHO Hydrographic Commission on Antarctica (HCA). Furthermore, an Editorial Board was established consisting of experts in Antarctic bathymetry from nations that acquire data in the Southern Ocean that collectively gathered bathymetric data from more than 30 institutions, in 15 different countries.

The final version of the IBCSO version 1.0 DBM as well as its accompanied printable chart is going to be presented. This will include a description of specific techniques used to derive the DBM and an overview of the incorporated data sets. Furthermore, the result will be compared to other global bathymetric data compilations to show the improvement. In addition, the development of the printable chart and the chart itself is going to be described briefly.

"Changing Polar Regions" - 25th International Congress on Polar Research 2013 INTERNATIONALE POLARTAGUNG, HAMBURG 2013

- AUTHENTISCHES LERNEN UND DIE LEBENSLANGEN FOLGEN

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Das Thema Antarktika wird, von Grundschulklassen bis zu Gymnasiumklassen, mit Hilfe von Live-Unterricht von „Polarstern“ aus, zu einer wichtigen und bleibenden Bildungs- und Lebenserfahrung für Schüler und Schülerinnen. Dies wird an Hand eines Schulprojekts in einer Hauptschulklasse in Rheinland-Pfalz dargestellt.

Erfahrungen aus der Kindheit wirken bis heute In meiner Jugend erzählte mir einen Walfänger des Öfteren von seinem Beruf. Ich war nachhaltig beeindruckt. Es gab längere “Wal-lose” Perioden in meinem Leben, aber das Thema „Wale und die beiden Pole“ ließ mich letztendlich nicht mehr los.

Schauen Sie doch mal bei sich selbst: Was Sie in der Kindheit erfahren haben, ist oft bleibend.

Seit 2003 befasste ich mich wieder zunehmend mit Walen und Walfanggeschichte und entwarf Unterrichtsreihen bezüglich dieses Themas für die Fächer Erdkunde, Geschichte, Biologie und Ethik.

Eine Fortbildung, ein “Antarktika”- Projekt und die DGP Im Jahr 2010 lud Fr. Kallfelz zu einer Fortbildung mit dem Thema “Antarktis- ein Pol im Unterricht” ein. Sie machte mich bekannt mit der “Polarstern” und ich startete durch: meine Leidenschaft für Wale konnte bestens eingebunden werden in ein Großprojekt. So wurde “Antarktika, eine Ausstellung” erfolgreich in meiner Klasse durchgeführt. Ziel: Eltern und Kinder am Tag der offenen Tür mittels einer Ausstellung zu begeistern für das Südpolargebiet.

Also werden einen Eisbär, ein Albatros, ein Kaiserpinguin und ein Pottwal in wahrer Größe angefertigt, werden Kurzfilme gedreht, die Neumayer-Station und die Polarstern werden in Miniatur nachgebaut, 100 Jahre alte Skier, kleine und große Kuscheltiere und Globusse und Poster werden angetragen, Karten mit der Position der “Polarstern” werden aufgehängt, das Wettrennen um die Entdeckung des Südpols zwischen Scott und Amundsen wird dargestellt und wir folgen der täglichen Berichterstattung von Fr. Kallfelz, die sich zu dieser Zeit an Bord der “Polarstern” befindet. Ein Quiz wird ausgedacht, es gibt kleine Preise zu gewinnen. Das Highlight des Projekts ist ein Telefonat mit Fr. Kallfelz.

Meine Unterrichtserfahrungen mit authentischem Lernen, Projektarbeit und der

Antarktis:

"Changing Polar Regions" - 25th International Congress on Polar Research 2013 Die Suche nach Grenzen, Echtheit und Extremen ist Kindern angeboren. Sie suchen Grenzen im Verhalten, in anderen Ländern und Kulturen, im Tierreich, aber auch in ethischen Fragen. Außerdem begeistern wahre Geschehnisse Kinder.

Mein Projekt ist das Gegenteil von einem Lehrwerk, von gekünstelten Aufträgen, von frontalem Unterricht und den Lehrplänen der Länder. Das Thema Antarktika ist in seiner Extremheit, gespickt mit extremen Geschichten, prädestiniert für authentischen, selbst motivierenden Projektunterricht.

Es lässt, in Verbindung mit Projektarbeit, viel Kreativität in Kindern aufkommen, die außerdem fachübergreifend ihre Talente und Stärken nutzen und darstellen.

Es wurde dazu gearbeitet/gelernt für ein echtes, authentisches Ziel: Eine Ausstellung.

Oberflächliches auswendig lernen fällt also weg. Live-Unterricht von der „Polarstern“

aus macht, dass gelernte Fakten verinnerlicht werden. Vier Ziele wurden erreicht:

Viele Fakten rund um die Antarktis wurden in den einleitenden Unterrichtssequenzen verinnerlicht.

In einem ca. 50 - Stündigen Projekt wurde eine Ausstellung zum Thema hergestellt.

Die Ausstellung selbst wurde ein Erfolg.

Die tägliche Verbindung mittels Blog und Email mit der Polarstern und das einmalige, 30-minütige Telefonat mit einer Lehrerin an Bord hat alles verinnerlicht und zu einem unvergesslichen Ereignis gemacht. Hinzu kommt, dass ein Fernsehteam unseren Unterricht und das Telefongespräch aufgenommen hat.

"Changing Polar Regions" - 25th International Congress on Polar Research 2013 THE ROLE OF MOSSES FOR PRIMARY SUCCESSION IN A

PROGLACIAL AREA IN SE-ICELAND

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Facilitation and positive interactions are widely recognized processes that shape plant communities. They are expected to be especially important in harsh environments. On the glacial outwash plain of Skeiðarársandur, a mosaic of early successional communities is developing with minimal human interference. Although the physical environment appears homogeneous, diverging successional processes are clearly operating on the sandur. In the uppermost part, mosses form discrete patches of varying size on an otherwise sandy/gravelly plain. Moss patches may influence vascular plant establishment and growth by 1) acting as physical barrier and therefore trapping seeds more effectively than barren ground, 2) creating safe sites for germination or 3) improving growing conditions for vascular plants by modifying the microclimate and/or soil moisture retention.

To examine the potential roles of moss, we compared seed rain and seed bank in moss patches and surrounding barren areas in the north part of Skeiðarársandur. To test the effect of moss on vascular plant germination, establishment and survival we transplanted homogeneous moss mats into two sites with different substrate (fine vs.

coarse) in the barren central part of Skeiðarársandur in 2010. A seedling transplant and sowing experiment with locally collected seeds started in spring 2011 to compare germination rates, seedling establishment and plant survival for five selected species (Silene acaulis, Campanula rotundifolia, Luzula multiflora, Rumex acetosella and Betula pubescens).

There was no significant difference in seed rain and seed bank size between moss patches and bare ground but most of the viable seeds were found beneath moss.

Germination rate on the experimental sites was significantly higher in bare ground than in moss. Germination rate was higher on coarse substrate. In general, germination in the different treatments varied markedly between species, ranging from 0% to 56%. Substrate type affected winter survival of seedlings which was highest on coarse substrate.



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