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«Poster Session Wednesday, 20 January 2016 14:00-16:00 Balint Hall 1 Corina Aguilar-Raab University Heidelberg, Germany ...»

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Poster Session

Wednesday, 20 January 2016 14:00-16:00 Balint Hall

1 Corina Aguilar-Raab University Heidelberg, Germany corina.aguilar-raab@med.uni-heidelberg.de

(Title: to be announced)

2 Vasilis Anagnostopoulos ETH Zurich, Switzerland anagnwstopoulos@hotmail.com Location-Aware Mobile Tracking for Tourist Assistance 3 Friederike Blume University of Tübingen, Germany friederike.blume@uni-tuebingen.de Eye Tracking in 3D Virtual Reality (VR) Classrooms in Children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 4 Tatiana Esau University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany tatiana.esau@uni-due.de Action-Oriented Analysis of Engineering Design Problem-Solving Processes in Technology Education 5 Nina Gehrer Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Germany nina.gehrer@googlemail.com Social information processing in violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder 6 Johannes Hellenbrand University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany johannes.hellenbrand@uni-due.de Using eye tracking to identify the underlying cognitive processes of generative drawing as a self-regulated learning strategy 7 Alex Junghans ETH Zürich, Switzerland alex.junghans@hest.ethz.ch Survival Curve Processing and Numeracy: an Eye Tracking Study 8 Laura Kress University of Bern, Switzerland laura.kress@psy.unibe.ch How do optimistic expectancies influence visual attention?

9 Christian Lander Universität Saarbrücken, Germany Christian.Lander@dfki.de Methods for Improving Eye Tracking Calibration and Multi User Interaction 10 Pascal Lienert ETH Zurich, Switzerland pascal.lienert@hest.ethz.ch Affective responses to high-voltage power lines: The importance of siting 11 Magdalena Luniewska Polish Academy of Sciences/University of Warsaw, Poland luniewskam@gmail.com Vocabulary size and organization of the mental lexicon of Polish children 12 Shanmugaraj Madasamy Institute of Technology Blanchardstown, Ireland innoraj@gmail.

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Title: to be announced Abstract: to be announced Poster 2: Vasilis Anagnostopoulos (ETH Zurich, Switzerland) Location-Aware Mobile Tracking for Tourist Assistance The problem of gaze estimation and tracking attracted a lot of research interest because of its many potential applications in areas such as human attention analysis and gaze-based user interfaces. However, the input from gaze-based devices might not be able to be used in an intuitive, efficient, and privacypreserving way to provide information services on touristic areas of interest such as city panoramas. This research project is aimed to bridge the gap by designing and developing an outdoor gaze-based interaction platform for tourists visually exploring a city panorama.

Poster 3: Friederike Blume (University of Tübingen, Germany)

Eye Tracking in 3D Virtual Reality (VR) Classrooms in Children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Children with ADHD are inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive, and these core symptoms are known to affect performance levels at home and at school (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). However, not only school performance is affected, but also the children’s and their family’s quality of life. Hence, ADHD often requires adequate medical and psychological treatment. With my PhD studies, (1) I aim at implementing a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) based neurofeedback training (NF) 3D VR classrooms as a therapeutic intervention in primary school children with ADHD. (2) I will examine how children with and without ADHD perceive classroom situations that differ in the virtual teacher’s instructional quality. I aim at applying eye tracking in both projects serving various goals.

Poster Session, Wednesday 20.01.2016, 14:00-16:00 p. 3 (1) A NIRS-based NF aims at increasing the level of oxygenated haemoglobin in prefrontal areas in primary school children with ADHD, as it is known to be decreased in patients with ADHD compared to healthy controls (e.g., Marx et al., 2015; Negoro et al., 2010). To our knowledge, we are the first to implement the NF in a 3D VR classroom visualised through a head-mounted display (HMD). This approach aims at facilitating the transfer of acquired self-regulation strategies from laboratory to real-life classroom situations. In developing the classroom, we aim at creating an ecologically valid scenario, hence it will contain auditory and visual distractors such as fellow students talking and fidgeting, getting up from their places, or mobile phones that ring, for instance. Within this project, we aim at implementing eye tracking as a means to validate whether the distractors presented influence the subjects’ attention. We expect that eye movement towards the distractor should occur when the distractors disturb the subjects’ attentional focus. Furthermore, eye tracking in NF will be employed as a means to control whether a subject’s eyes are open or closed when an HMD is worn.

(2) Different studies provide evidence that teachers’ instructional quality crucially influences children’s academic development (e.g., Fauth, Decristan, Rieser, Klieme, & Büttner, 2014). However, until today, it is more or less unknown, whether children with ADHD perceive and employ their teachers’ instructional offers in the same way as their healthy classmates do. Furthermore, it is unknown, whether children with and without ADHD visually focus on the same things during lessons. Hence, my second PhD study is going to examine the visual foci of schoolchildren with and without ADHD while a virtual teacher explains a certain subject matter to them with varying instructional quality.

Finally, as prospective studies, I plan to investigate where children with and without ADHD look at during real-life lessons at school. Moreover, I plan to examine the effects of a NF in schoolchildren with ADHD on eye movements in virtual as well as real-life classroom situations.

Poster 4: Tatiana Esau (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)

Action-Oriented Analysis of Engineering Design Problem-Solving Processes in Technology Education The rapid development of technology and its complexity require multidisciplinary competencies such as problem-solving skills. The solving of engineering design problems belongs to the special case of the problem-solving and is one of the most important action-oriented learning methods in the technical education. In the didactic literature, the action-oriented learning processes, especially with the possibility to interact with real objects, count to highly effective.

Nevertheless, currently there are not empirical investigation with respect to the technology education which prove this theses. In particular, it have not been explored what factors do influence the quality of the solution processes in details. So the aim of my project is to verify these theses and to explore the influencing factors. For this a survey will be carried out at schools in Germany and in Luxembourg.

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Social information processing in violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder Appropriate social functioning depends upon the correct perception and interpretation of verbal and nonverbal information. Deficits in the processing of relevant (non-verbal) social cues are hypothesized to underlie the development and maintenance of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Consistently, mounting evidence supports the assumption of altered perception and interpretation of affective stimuli in aggressive individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Moreover, some studies found evidence for altered visual search patterns in aggressive individuals (e.g., reduced attention to the eye region) when they were instructed to categorize emotional facial expressions.

This project aims to investigate the underlying attentional processes relevant to the perception of facial affect in two groups of incarcerated offenders (violent and non-violent offenders) and healthy controls. In particular, we are interested in investigating how aggressive and dissocial personality traits may relate to deficits in the attention given to salient emotional aspects other people’s faces (e.g., number and duration of fixations or number of first fixations in the eye region). Furthermore, we aim to examine possible between-group differences in pupil dilation as a measure of sympathetic nervous system activity during processing of emotional facial expressions.

Poster 6: Johannes Hellenbrand (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany) Using eye tracking to identify the underlying cognitive processes of generative drawing as a self-regulated learning strategy (with Maria Opfermann, Annett Schmeck, and Detlev Leutner) Students often have difficulties dealing with complex scientific texts (Baumert et al., 2001; Schnotz, 1994). In this regard, if one wants to enable students to study for deep level understanding, a generative learning strategy like drawing might be a suitable way to overcome such difficulties. By asking students to make a drawing (e.g., while they read a text) they have to engage in generative learning processes like selecting relevant elements and relations, organizing the material into a coherent mental model and integrating this information with prior knowledge from long-term memory (generative drawing; Leutner & Schmeck, 2014).

Poster Session, Wednesday 20.01.2016, 14:00-16:00 p. 5 The cognitive processes underlying generative drawing are described in van Meter and Garner’s (2005) Generative Theory of Drawing Construction (GTDC) and in van Meter and Firetto’s (2013) updated version - the Cognitive Model of Drawing Construction (CMDC). One proposed advantage of drawing (in comparison to other cognitive learning strategies like the highlighting) is that self-regulation processes are automatically fostered when using the drawing strategy (Leopold & Leutner, 2015). There is empirical evidence for the so called generative drawing effect (see, for example, Fiorella & Mayer, 2015; Leutner & Schmeck, 2014;

Schmeck, 2010; Schmeck, Mayer, Opfermann, Pfeiffer, & Leutner, 2014; van Meter & Firetto, 2013), but it is not confirmed yet that learner-generated drawings foster self-regulation processes more than other generative learning strategies. In other words: There is empirical evidence for learner-generated drawings as a learning strategy, but there is no evidence for the underlying cognitive processes assumed in the CMDC.

The goal of my PhD project is to examine the specific cognitive processes underlying generative drawing as a self-regulated learning strategy and to modify the according theoretical assumptions (if necessary). The CMDC predicts that, by using the drawing strategy, learners’ attention will be directed towards key elements and their relations to be taken from a text to be read. Furthermore, it can be expected that the process of drawing prompts the use of other known learning strategies, which support the process of selecting and organizing structural elements. A further prediction is that learners who generate drawings on their own use self-monitoring and self-regulation processes more frequently than learners who do not use this strategy (van Meter & Firetto, 2013).

First, in order to study the cognitive processes mentioned above, I want to investigate high school students when they are requested to draw on paper while reading on a scientific issue. While the students are reading and drawing, we track their eye movements with Eye Tracking Glasses (SMI). Point-of-view videos, eye movements and the non-digital outputs (like highlighted text and the quality of drawings) will help to make those processes observable. Second, I want to evaluate if the cognitive processes mentioned above are unique for the learner-generated drawing strategy or if they can also be found when other generative learning strategies are applied (e.g., writing summaries). In addition, another goal of my research is to point out differences between good and bad strategy users. In this regard, using Eye Tracking Glasses (SMI) allows us to leave the laboratory setting and to collect data of eye movements in a realistic field setting.

My plan is to work with 8th and 9th graders in different schools to shed more light on the strategy’s usefulness in practice.

The project’s objectives are significant both from a theoretical and practical perspective. From a theoretical perspective, my study will provide insights into the theoretical assumptions of generated drawing as a self-regulated learning strategy and how these assumptions can be distinguished from assumptions regarding other learning strategies. From a practical perspective, my study will provide details as to what are the underlying processes of generative drawing and which of them foster learning. In addition, the underlying cognitive processes of generative drawing as a self-regulated learning strategy are initially recognized based on eye-tracking analyses and thereby in a realistic setting.

References Baumert, J., Klieme Eckhard, Neubrand, M., Prenzel, M., Schiefele, U., Schneider, W.,... Weiß, M. (Eds.). (2001). PISA 2000: Basiskompetenzen von Schülerinnen und Schülern im internationalen Vergleich. Opladen: Leske + Budrich.

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Leopold, C., & Leutner, D. (2015). Improving students’ science text comprehension through metacognitive self-regulation when applying learning strategies.

Metacognition and Learning, published online first. doi:10.1007/s11409-014-9130-2 Leutner, D., & Schmeck, A. (2014). The generative drawing principle in multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (2nd ed., pp. 433–448). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schmeck, A. (2010). Visualisieren naturwissenschaftlicher Sachverhalte. Der Einsatz von vorgegebenen und selbst generierten Visualisierungen als Textverstehenshilfen beim Lernen aus naturwissenschaftlichen Sachtexten (Dissertation). Universität Duisburg-Essen, Essen.

Schmeck, A., Mayer, R. E., Opfermann, M., Pfeiffer, V., & Leutner, D. (2014). Drawing pictures during learning from scientific text: Testing the generative drawing effect and the prognostic drawing effect. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39(4), 275–286. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.07.003 Schnotz, W. (1994). Aufbau von Wissensstrukturen: Untersuchungen zur Kohärenzbildung beim Wissenserwerb mit Texten. Fortschritte der psychologischen Forschung: Vol. 20. Weinheim: Beltz.

van Meter, P., & Firetto, C. M. (2013). Cognitive model of drawing construction: Learning through the construction of drawings. In G. J. Schraw, M. T.

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