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«EURASIAN INTEGRATION: LEGAL AND EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS Novosibirsk, 3–5 of December 2014 SECOND SCHOOL OF INTERECOLAW Novosibirsk, 4–5 of December ...»

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140. Steiner, Kimball & Scanlon, n. 21 above. [Steiner A., Kimball L. A., Scanlon J. Global Governance for the Environment and the Role of Multilateral Environmental Agreements in Conservation // Oryx. 2003.

Vol. 37(2). P. 227–237.]

141. Report of the Study Group of the International Law Commission (ILC), Fragmentation of International Law: Difficulties Arising from the Diversification and Expansion of International Law, UN Doc.

A/CN.4/L.682, 13 Apr. 2006.

142. Vienna (Austria), 23 May 1969, in force 27 Jan. 1980, available at: http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/texts/ instruments.

143. VCLT, ibid., Art. 31(3)(c).

144. We note that the formulation of Article 31(3)(c) has been criticized as unclear both in its substantive and temporal scope and its normative force. See, e.g., U. Linderfalk, ‘Who Are «The Parties»? Article 31, Paragraph 3(c) of the 1969 Vienna Convention and the «Principle of Systemic Integration» Revisited’ (2008) 55(3) Netherlands International Law Review. P. 343–364; McLachlan C. The Principle of Systemic Integration and Article 31(3)(c) of the Vienna Convention // International and Comparative Law Quarterly.

2005. Vol. 54(2). P. 279–319; Tzevelekos V. P. The Use of Article 31(3)(c) of the VCLT in the Case Law of the ECtHR: An Effective Anti-Fragmentation Tool or a Selective Loophole for the Reinforcement of Human Rights Teleology? // Michigan Journal of International Law. 2010. Vol. 31. P. 621–690.

145. Xue Hanqin’s remark during the debates in the International Law Commission on the significance of Article 31(3)(c): ILC, n. 141 above, at p. 211.

Интерэкоправо в антропоцене: к вопросу о целенаправленной системе... 217

146. Kauffman S. At Home in the Universe: The Search for Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity.

Oxford University Press, 1995. For a general introduction to complex adaptive systems, see, e. g., Holland J. H.

Hidden Order: How Adaptation Builds Complexity. Perseus Books Group, 1995; Levin S. A. Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons. Perseus Books Group, 1999; Miller J. H., Page S. E. Complex Adaptive Systems: An Introduction to Computational Models of Social Life. Princeton University Press, 2007;

Mitchell M. Complexity: A Guided Tour. Oxford University Press, 2009.

147. Kauffman, ibid, at p. 267.

148. Steiner, Kimball & Scanlon, n. 21 above.

149. Possibilities include fundamental ethical change promoted through a global treaty or the Earth Charter (see, e. g., Taylor, n. 74 above, at pp. 323–44), jurisprudential advancements through academic literature or judicial reasoning, or incremental changes through legal agreements or institutional reform. See Bugge & Voigt, n. 33 above.

150. Latham G. P., Locke E. A. Self-Regulation through Goal Setting // Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 1991. Vol. 50. P. 212–247.

151. Agreement between the United States of America and Canada on Great Lakes Water Quality (GLWQ Agreement), Ottawa (Canada), 22 Nov. 1978, in force 22 Nov. 1978, available at: http://www.ijc.org.

152. GLWQA, ibid., Art. II.

153. Canberra (Australia), 20 May 1980, in force 7 Apr. 1982, available at: http://www.ccamlr.org.

154. Ibid., Preamble.

155. See, e. g., Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Biological Diversity in the Mediterranean, Barcelona (Spain), 10 Jun. 1995, in force 12 Dec. 1999, available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu.

156. N. 65 above.

157. N. 66 above.

158. Agenda 21: Programme of Action for Sustainable Development, UN Doc. A/CONF.151/26, 14 Jun.

1992, available at: http://www.unep.org.

159. IUCN Environmental Law Programme, Draft International Covenant on Environment and Development. Fourth edition: Updated Text (IUCN Environmental Law Programme & International Council of Environmental Law, 2010), available at: http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/environmental_law/ elp_resources/elp_res_publications/?uPubsID54197.

160. The Earth Charter Initiative, The Earth Charter (The Earth Charter Initiative, 2000), available at:

http://www.earthcharterinaction.org.

161. Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, UN Doc. A/CONF.199/20, 4 Sep. 2002, available at: http://www.

johannesburgsummit.org.

162. N. 30 above.

163. Rio Declaration, n. 66 above, Preamble.

164. Rio Declaration, ibid., Principle 7.

165. World Charter for Nature, n. 65 above, Principle 4.

166. Earth Charter, n. 160 above, Principle 5.

167. Draft International Covenant, n. 159 above, Art. 2. This was reflected in the text upon consulting with the drafters of the Earth Charter to ensure consistency among the principles set forth in both texts.

168 Bosselmann, n. 32 above, at p. 162–174.

169. Karr J. R. Biological Integrity: A Long-Neglected Aspect of Water Resource Management // Ecological Applications. 1991. Vol. 1(1). P. 66–84; Karr J. R., Chu E. W. Ecological Integrity: Reclaiming Lost Connections / in Westra L., Lemons J. (eds) Perspectives on Ecological Integrity. Kluwer Academic, 1995.





P. 34–48.

170. Griggs D. et al. Sustainable Development Goals for People and Planet // Nature. 2013. Vol. 495.

P. 305–307.

See also Petit J. R. et al. Climate and Atmospheric History of the Past 420,000 Years from the Vostok Ice Core, Antarctica // Nature. 1999. Vol. 399(6735). P. 429–436 (finding that the Holocene is by far the longest stable warm period during the past 420,000 years).

171. Rockström et al., n. 3 above.

218 Р.  Э. Ким, К. Боссельман  

172. Griggs et al., n. 170 above.

173. Griggs et al., ibid. See also Anton D. K. The 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development and the Future of International Environmental Protection // Consilience: The Journal of Sustainable Development. 2012. Vol. 7(1). P. 55–61.

174. Rockström et al., n. 28 above. See also Running S. W. A Measurable Planetary Boundary for the Biosphere // Science. 2012. Vol. 337(6101). P. 1458–1459.

175 Roderick P. The Feasibility of Environmental Limits Legislation’, WWF-UK, 2011, available at:

http://assets.wwf.org.uk/downloads/feasibility_environmental_limits_legislation.pdf.

176. Decision X/2, The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, UN Doc. UNEP/CBD/COP/DEC/X/2, 29 Oct. 2010.

177. Vidas D. The Anthropocene and the International Law of the Sea // Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 2011. Vol. 369(1938). P. 909–925, at 923–924.

178. Steffen, Rockstrüm & Costanza, n. 23 above.

179. Biermann F. et al. Navigating the Anthropocene: Improving Earth System Governance // Science.

2012. Vol. 335 (6074). P. 1306–1307. See also Bosselmann K., Brown P. G., Mackey B. Enabling a Flourishing Earth: Challenges for the Green Economy, Opportunities for Global Governance // Review of European Community and International Environmental Law. 2012. Vol. 21(1). P. 23–30.

ТРУБОПРОВОДНАЯ КОНФИГУРАЦИЯ ПРИЧЕРНОМОРСКОГО РЕГИОНА

И ПРОБЛЕМы ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКОЙ БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ

О. И. Киндыбалюк, канд. полит. наук, заведующая кафедрой мировой политики и международных отношений Европейского университета Молдовы (Кишинев) В условиях конкурентной борьбы стран за доступ к энергоносителям и выборы маршрутов их доставки на мировой рынок Черноморский регион, расположенный на перекрестке важных экспортных потоков нефти и газа, становится одним из ключевых центров энергоресурсных возможностей. В геоэнергетическом дискурсе транзитный потенциал Причерноморья трудно переоценить. Географическое положение позволило ему стать важной транзитной зоной, через которую проходят транспортные магистрали, соединяющие страны Запада с богатыми углеводородным сырьем, регионы Центральной Азии и Закавказья.

Перспектива прокладки магистральных трубопроводов по дну Черного моря заметно повысила внимание к региону, и не только с позиции его геостратегической значимости, но и с природоохранной точки зрения. Особую актуальность в этом контексте получил вопрос о трансграничном воздействии транснациональных трубопроводов на окружающую среду, в частности, их морского участка, а также управление экологическими и социальными рисками. Отметим, что в первую очередь речь идет о функционирующем газопроводе «Голубой поток», по которому природный газ транспортируется из России в Турцию, а также «Южном потоке», который планируется проложить через акваторию Черного моря.

Несмотря на то что трубопроводы считаются наиболее экологически безопасным средством доставки газа, риск деформации среды водных биоресурсов все же сохраняется. Не всегда утверждения о том, что их строительство соответствует всем необходимым экологическим стандартам, находят свое подтверждение на практике. Более того, как показывает анализ, строительство газопроводов очень часто происходит с нарушением законодательства, а также норм экологической безопасности, что приводит к разрушению объектов культурного наследия и другим немаловажным последствиям. Часто строительные работы начинаются до получения окончательных заключений экологов или просто игнорируются. Так, например, строительство «Голубого потока» сопровождалось серьезным нарушением норм природоохранного законодательства. В результате были уничтожены деревья, которые занесены в Красную книгу, а именно крымская и пицундская сосны, можжевельник. Кроме того, нельзя не отметить, что трубопровод проходит по особо охраняемым территориям в границах санитарной зоны, что уже per se является серьезным нарушением и связано с появлением реальных экологических последствий.



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