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«EURASIAN INTEGRATION: LEGAL AND EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS Novosibirsk, 3–5 of December 2014 SECOND SCHOOL OF INTERECOLAW Novosibirsk, 4–5 of December ...»

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Elias, Contemporary Issues in the Law of Treaties (Eleven International, 2005). See also J. Pauwelyn, Conflict of Norms in International Law: How WTO Law Relates to Other Rules of International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2003); Borgen C. J. Resolving Treaty Conflicts // George Washington International Law Review. 2005. Vol. 37(3). P. 573–648.

83. On the notion of ‘ad hoc-ism’ in the global environmental governance context, see Najam A.

Future Directions: The Case for a «Law of the Atmosphere» // Atmospheric Environment. 2000. Vol. 34(23).

P. 4047–4049.

84. See, e. g., Borgen C. J. Treaty Conflicts and Normative Fragmentation / Hollis D. B. (ed) The Oxford Guide to Treaties. Oxford University Press, 2012. P. 448–471.

85. For a similar argument in the wider context of sustainable development, see Lafferty & Hovden, n.

20 above; Voigt, n. 30 above.

86. See, e. g., 2005 World Summit Outcome, UNGA Resolution A/RES/60/1, 24 Oct. 2005, at para. 169, available at: http://www.un.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws.asp?m=A/RES/60/1.

87. Van Asselt, n. 7 above, at p. 1265.

88. Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), 5 Jun. 1992, in force 29 Dec. 1993, available at: http://www.cbd.int.

89. Views on the Paper on Options for Enhanced Cooperation among the Three Rio Conventions Submissions from Parties, UN Doc. FCCC/SBSTA/2006/MISC.4, 23 Mar. 2006, at p. 16.

90. Report on the work of the United Nations Open-Ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea at its Eleventh Meeting, UN Doc. A/65/164,23 Jul. 2010, at para. 90. See also Diz D. et al.

Summary of the Resumed Review Conference of the UN Fish Stocks Agreement: 24–28 May 2010 // Earth Negotiations Bulletin. 2010. Vol. 7(65). P. 1–14, at 7.

214 Р.  Э. Ким, К. Боссельман  

91. Wolfrum & Matz, n. 7 above, at p. 163; Van Asselt, n. 7 above, at pp. 1265–1266.

92. Scott, n. 7 above, at p. 214.

93. Multilateral Environmental Agreements: A Summary, UN Doc. UNEP/IGM/1/INF/1, 30 Mar. 2001, at para. 42.

94. For a review of the contemporary debate on sovereignty, see Bartelson J. The Concept of Sovereignty Revisited // European Journal of International Law. 2006. Vol. 17(2). P. 463–474.

95. Examples include the prohibition of aggression, slavery, genocide, racial discrimination, and torture:

Brownlie I. Principles of Public International Law. Oxford University Press, 6th edn, 2003, at p. 515. See also Steiner, Alston & Goodman, n. 59 above. For the concept of jus cogens, see, e. g., Frowein J. A. Ius Cogens / Wolfrum, n. 46 above; Shelton, n. 71 above.

96. See, e. g., Bull K., Hoft R., Sutton M. A. Coordinating European Nitrogen Policies between International Conventions and Intergovernmental Organizations / Sutton M. A. et al. (eds) The European Nitrogen Assessment. Cambridge University Press, 2011, at p. 577.

97. Moncel & Van Asselt, n. 56 above, at p. 174.

98. Chambers W. B. Interlinkages and the Effectiveness of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (United Nations University Press, 2008, at p. 7.

99. See, e. g., Sands & Peel, n. 7 above, at p. 893.

100. Teclaff L. A., Teclaff E. Transfers of Pollution and the Marine Environment Conventions // Natural Resources Journal. 1991. Vol. 31. P. 187–211.

101. Montego Bay (Jamaica), 10 Dec. 1982, in force 16 Nov. 1994, available at: http://www.un.org/depts/los.

102. UNCLOS, ibid., Art. 195.

103. Biofuels are fuels derived from biomass or waste feedstocks and include ethanol and biodiesel: see, e.g., International Energy Agency, available at: http://www.iea.org/topics/biofuels.

104. European Environment Agency, ‘Opinion of the EEA Scientific Committee on Greenhouse Gas Accounting in Relation to Bioenergy’, 15 Sep. 2011, at pp. 5–6, available at: http://www.eea.europa.eu.

105. Danielsen F. et al. Biofuel Plantations on Forested Lands: Double Jeopardy for Biodiversity and Climate // Conservation Biology. 2008. Vol. 23(2). P. 348–358; Fargione J. et al. Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt // Science. 2008. Vol. 319(5867). P. 1235–1238; Searchinger T. et al. Use of US Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases through Emissions from Land-Use Change // Science.

2008. Vol. 319(5867). P. 1238–1240.

106. Kim H., Kim S., Dale B. E. Biofuels, Land Use Change, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Some Unexplored Variables // Environmental Science & Technology. 2009. Vol.43(3). P. 961–967.

107. European Environment Agency, n. 104 above, at p. 8.

108. Yang, Bae, Kim & Suh, n. 9 above; Jackson R. B. et al. Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration // Science. 2005. Vol. 310(5756). P. 1944–1947; Pimentel D. The Ecological and Energy Integrity of Corn Ethanol Production / Westra L., Bosselmann K., Westra R. (eds), Reconciling Human Existence with Ecological Integrity. Earthscan, 2008. P. 245–256.

109. Tilman D. et al. Beneficial Biofuels — The Food, Energy, and Environment Trilemma // Science.

2009. Vol. 325(5938). P. 270–271.

110. «Forest» is a minimum area of land of 0.05–1.0 hectares with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10–30 per cent with trees with the potential to reach a minimum height of 2–5 metres at maturity in situ. A forest may consist either of closed forest formations where trees of various storeys and undergrowth cover a high proportion of the ground or open forest. Young natural stands and all plantations which have yet to reach a crown density of 10–30 per cent or tree height of 2–5 metres are included under forest, as are areas normally forming part of the forest area which are temporarily unstocked as a result of human intervention such as harvesting or natural causes but which are expected to revert to forest’: Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Seventh Session, held at Marrakesh from 29 October to 10 November 2001, Addendum, Part Two: Action Taken by the Conference of the Parties, Vol. I, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2001/13/ Add.1, 21 Jan. 2002, at p. 58.





111. Decision 2/CP.7, The Marrakesh Accords, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2001/13/Add.1, 21 Jan. 2002.

112. Sasaki N., Putz F. E. Critical Need for New Definitions of «Forest» and «Forest Degradation»

in Global Climate Change Agreements’ // Conservation Letters. 2009. Vol. 2(5). P. 226–232; Glomsrшd S., Интерэкоправо в антропоцене: к вопросу о целенаправленной системе... 215 Wei T., Liu G., Aune J. B. How Well Do Tree Plantations Comply with the Twin Targets of the Clean Development Mechanism? -The Case of Tree Plantations in Tanzania // Ecological Economics. 2011. Vol. 70(6).

P. 1066–1074.

113. Agrawal A., Nepstad D., Chhatre A. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation // Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 2011. Vol. 36(1). P. 373–396; Putz F. E., Redford K. Dangers of Carbon-based Conservation // Global Environmental Change. 2009. Vol. 19(4).

P. 400–401; Strassburg B. B. N. et al. Global Congruence of Carbon Storage and Biodiversity in Terrestrial Ecosystems // Conservation Letters. 2010. Vol. 3(2). P. 98–105.

114. Williamson P. et al. Ocean Fertilization for Geoengineering: A Review of Effectiveness, Environmental Impacts and Emerging Governance // Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 2012.

Vol. 90(6). P. 475–488; Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Scientific Synthesis of the Impacts of Ocean Fertilization on Marine Biodiversity (SCBD, 2009). See also Metz B. et al. (eds) Climate Change 2007: Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, 2007, at pp.

624–625.

115. Decision IX/16, Biodiversity and Climate Change, UN Doc. UNEP/CBD/COP/DEC/IX/16, 9 Oct.

2008, at p. 7. See also Decision X/33, Biodiversity and Climate Change, UN Doc. UNEP/CBD/COP/ DEC/ X/33, 29 Oct. 2010, at p. 5.

116. For general discussions on the legal dimension of ocean fertilization, see, e. g., Freestone D., Rayfuse R. Ocean Iron Fertilization and International Law // Marine Ecology Progress Series. 2008. Vol. 364.

P. 227–233; Abate R. S., Greenlee A. B. Sowing Seeds Uncertain: Ocean Iron Fertilization, Climate Change, and the International Environmental Law Framework // Pace Environmental Law Review. 2010. Vol. 27(2).

P. 555–98; Bertram C. Ocean Iron Fertilization in the Context of the Kyoto Protocol and the Post-Kyoto Process // Energy Policy. 2010 Vol. 38(2). P. 1130–1139; VanderZwaag D. L. Ocean Dumping and Fertilization in the Antarctic: Tangled Legal Currents, Sea of Challenges / Berkman P. A., Lang M. A., Walton D. W.H., Young O. R. (eds) Science Diplomacy: Antarctica, Science, and the Governance of International Spaces.

Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2011. P. 245–252; Warner R. Marine Snow Storms: Assessing the Environmental Risks of Ocean Fertilization // Carbon and Climate Law Review. 2009. Vol. 3(4). P. 426–436.

117. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, London (United Kingdom), 29 Dec. 1972, in force 30 Aug. 1975, available at: http://www.imo.org.

118. Protocol to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, 1972, London (United Kingdom), 7 Nov. 1996, in force 24 Mar. 2006, available at: http://www.imo.

org.

119. See, e. g., Zeebe R. E., Zachos J. C., Caldeira K., Tyrrell T. Carbon Emissions and Acidification // Science. 2008. Vol. 321(5885). P. 51–52.

120. Caldeira K., Wickett M. E. Anthropogenic Carbon and Ocean pH // Nature. 2003. Vol. 425(6956).

P. 365–368. The increasing acidity is predicted to have dire consequences for many marine ecosystems and species, especially those organisms that form shells and plates out of calcium carbonate, such as coral reefs: Riebesell U. et al. Reduced Calcification of Marine Plankton in Response to Increased Atmospheric CO2 // Nature. 2000. Vol. 407(6802). P. 364–367; Orr J. C. et al. Anthropogenic Ocean Acidification over the Twenty-first Century and Its Impact on Calcifying Organisms // Nature. 2005. Vol. 437(7059). P. 681–686;

Hoegh-Guldberg O. et al. Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification // Science. 2007.

Vol. 318(5857). P. 1737–1742; Fabry V. J., Seibel B. A., Feely R. A., Orr J. C. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Fauna and Ecosystem Processes ()// ICES Journal of Marine Science. 2008. Vol. 65(3). P. 414–432.

121. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto (Japan), 11 Dec. 1997, in force 16 Feb. 2005, available at: http://unfccc.int.

122. Kim R. E. Is a New Multilateral Environmental Agreement on Ocean Acidification Necessary? // Review of European Community and International Environmental Law. 2012. Vol. 21(3). P. 243–258; Baird R., Simons M., Stephens T. Ocean Acidification: A Litmus Test for International Law // Carbon and Climate Law Review. 2009. Vol. 3(4). P. 459–471; Harrould-Kolieb E. R., Herr D. Ocean Acidification and Climate Change: Synergies and Challenges of Addressing Both under the UNFCCC // Climate Policy. 2012. Vol. 12.

P. 378–389; Lamirande H. R. From Sea to Carbon Cesspool: Preventing the World’s Marine Ecosystems from Falling Victim to Ocean Acidification // Suffolk Transnational Law Review. 2011. Vol. 34(1). P. 183–217.

216 Р.  Э. Ким, К. Боссельман  

123. Baird, Simons & Stephens, ibid.

124. UNFCCC, n. 77 above, Art. 4(1)(d); Kyoto Protocol, n. 121 above, Art. 2(1)(a)(ii).

125. Ocean iron fertilization could, in theory, reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and hence the rate of ocean acidification in the upper ocean. However, if deployed on a climatically significant scale, this approach would relocate acidification from the upper ocean to mid- or deep water, where biota may be more sensitive to pH changes: Cao L., Caldeira K. Can Ocean Iron Fertilization Mitigate Ocean Acidification? // Climatic Change. 2010. Vol. 99(1–2). P. 303–311; Caldeira K., Duffy P. B. The Role of the Southern Ocean in Uptake and Storage of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide // Science. 2000. Vol. 287(5453).

P. 620–622; Williamson P., Turley C. Ocean Acidification in a Geoengineering Context // Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 2012. Vol. 370(1974). P. 4317–4342.

126. Scott K. N. International Law in the Anthropocene: Responding to the Geoengineering Challenge // Michigan Journal of International Law. 2013. Vol. 34(2). P. 309–358.

127. Jуhannsdуttir, Cresswell & Bridgewater, n. 12 above.

128. Proelss A., Krivickaite M. Marine Biodiversity and Climate Change // Carbon and Climate Law Review. 2009. Vol. 3(4). P. 437–445, at 438.

129. See, e. g., Hirsch P. D. et al. Acknowledging Conservation Trade-Offs and Embracing Complexity // Conservation Biology. 2011. Vol. 25(2). P. 259–264.

130. Ruhl J. B. The Fitness of Law: Using Complexity Theory to Describe the Evolution of Law and Society and Its Practical Meaning for Democracy // Vanderbilt Law Review. 1996. Vol. 49. P. 1406–1490, at 1444.

131. Meadows D. H. Thinking in Systems: A Primer. Chelsea Green, 2008, at p. 137.

132. Ibid.

133. See, e. g., Folke C. et al. Reconnecting to the Biosphere // Ambio. 2011. Vol. 40(7). P. 719–738.

134. This notion is adapted from Backer L. C. The Structural Characteristics of Global Law for the 21st Century: Fracture, Fluidity, Permeability, and Polycentricity // Tilburg Law Review. 2012. Vol. 17(2).

P. 177–199, at 180.

135. Meadows, n. 131 above, at pp. 161–162.

136. Schelling T. C. Micromotives and Macrobehavior. Norton, 1978.

137. Meadows, n. 131 above, at p. 162; Levin S. A. Complex Adaptive Systems: Exploring the Known, the Unknown and the Unknowable // Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. 2002. Vol. 40(1).

P. 3–19.

138. Meadows, ibid.

139. Unger R. Law in Modern Society. Free Press, 1976, at p. 194.



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