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«EURASIAN INTEGRATION: LEGAL AND EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS Novosibirsk, 3–5 of December 2014 SECOND SCHOOL OF INTERECOLAW Novosibirsk, 4–5 of December ...»

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This paper discusses the need for human rights impact assessments and due diligence in the design, planning and implementation of cross-border oil and gas pipeline projects. It highlights the need to integrate human rights threshold into legal and regulatory processes for the approval of cross-border oil and gas pipeline projects to address the complex human rights and social issues associated with such projects. This threshold would require project proponents to flag the likely impact of a project on fundamental human rights and to demonstrate or describe the efforts put in place to mitigate or avoid these results. By placing a mandatory requirement on project proponents to flag the likely impact of a project on fundamental human rights and to demonstrate or describe the efforts put in place to mitigate or avoid these negative results some of the negative externalities associated with pipeline projects can be anticipated and sustainably mitigated.

Though not legally binding, the John Ruggie Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights� ImpleGuiding Principles on Business and Human Rights� Implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework provides normative guidelines on how such a human right requirement can be framed and integrated into policy making. The Ruggie Framework describes it as the need for business enterprises to carry out ‘human rights due diligence’ or a ‘human rights Социальные и экологические риски  проектов трансграничных трубопроводов... 113 risk assessment’ before executing projects, to demonstrate that human rights are respected. This would include assessing actual and potential human rights impacts, integrating and acting upon the findings, tracking responses, communicating how impacts are addressed and putting in place processes to enable the remediation of adverse impacts.

Through a Human Rights Impact Assessment (HRIA) project proponents could systematically identify, predict and respond to the potential human rights impact of a pipeline infrastructure project. The HRIA is different and more comprehensive than ‘human rights auditing’ that has been suggested in the literature. The key questions under a HRIA are: what human rights concern does this project raise or could it raise, what groups are likely to be affected by these human rights concerns; what specific rights are affected by this project or policy and what efforts would be taken to address these issues in the process of project design and implementation. An HRIA would provide clear and comprehensive answers to these questions to avoid any element of surprise or secrecy in project implementation. The HRIA goes beyond only evaluations or human rights auditing in that, it identifies the areas of overlap between human rights and a project, and also identifies holistic solutions and methods for avoiding the identified human rights impacts.

To be effective, a HRIA should be initiated as early as possible, at the project planning and design stages.

Conducting a HRIA should be incorporated as a pre-condition for project approvals. This would ensure that any human rights impact would be put into consideration in planning and designing a project. It would also provide sufficient time for policymakers and project proponents to avoid the known consequences of a project.

Where the impact assessment indicates the possibility of potential human rights violations, it provides time for the project design to be revised to remove any incompatibility that has been found with pre-existing human rights obligations of the State concerned. This will prevent a situation whereby violations are detected only after a project has been commenced or completed. It provides an opportunity to anticipate and respond to the likely impact of a project on the human rights of citizens and stakeholders.

Not every possible impact of a project can be anticipated at the planning stage. As such, ex ante human rights impact assessments should be complemented by human rights impact assessments performed ex post, once the effects can be quantified. Human rights impact assessment should be regarded as an iterative process, taking place on a regular basis, for instance, every three or five years. Safeguarding clauses should be included to ensure that, should such ex post assessments lead to the conclusion that the project proponent or sponsor country is unable to comply with its human rights obligations under the project scenario, registration for such projects would be re-appraised and if necessary withdrawn.

References

1. Belyaev L., Marchenko O., Podkovalnikov S. Expected Consequences of Transition to Market in Russian Electric Power Industry. Irkutsk: Energy System Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2003.

2. Dimitroff T. Cross-border oil and gas pipeline risk and sustainable mitigations // Journal of World Energy Law Bus. 2014. № 7 (4). Р. 287–339.

3. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Guiding Principles on Human Rights Impact Assessments of Trade and Investment Agreements’ Режим доступа: http://www2.ohchr.org/ english/issues/food/docs/20110701Draft_Guiding_Principles_on_HRIA.pdf Дата обращения: 23 February 2012.





4. Olawuyi D. Fostering Accountability in Large Scale Environmental Projects: Lessons from CDM and REDD+ Projects // World Bank Legal Review. Washington, DC. 2014. № 6 (1).

5. Olawuyi D. Mainstreaming Human Rights under National and International Law: Legal and Episainstreaming temic Questions // Indonesia Law Review. Djokosoetono Research Center (DRC). Faculty of Law University of Indonesia. 2013. № 3 (3).

6. Plant G. Transboundary Energy projects and Maritime Transport Risk // J. Dimitroff (ed). Risk and Energy Infrastructure: Cross Border Dimensions // Global law and Business. 2011. № 92.

7. Podkovalnikov S. Study for Russia, Democratic People Republic of Korea, People Republic of Korea and China Power Interconnection: Analysis of Current Status. Irkutsk: Energy Systems Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2002.

114 Дамилола С. Олавуйи

8. Ruggie J. Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations // Protect, Respect and Remedy. Framework. 2011. UN Res/ A/HRC/17/31, para. 17.

9. Simma B. Foreign Investment Arbitration: A Place for Human Rights? // International and Comparative Law Quarterly. 2011. № 60. Р. 595–596.

10. Walker S. Human Rights Impact Assessments of Trade-Related Policies // Gehring M., CordonierSegger M. Claire. Sustainable Development in World Trade Law. Kluwer: Law, 2005. Р. 217–256.

МЕЖДУНАРОДНО-ПРАВОВАЯ ОХРАНА ЛАСТОНОГИХ

МЛЕКОПИТАЮЩИХ В СЕВЕРНОМ ЛЕДОВИТОМ ОКЕАНЕ

В. Р. Авхадеев, кандидат юридических наук, доцент, старший научный сотрудник отдела международного публичного права Института законодательства и сравнительного правоведения при Правительстве Российской Федерации (Москва) Ластоногие млекопитающие, обитающие в акватории Северного Ледовитого океана и на его побережье, издавна представляют собой промысловую ценность для жителей Арктического региона.

При этом популяции ластоногих в Северном Ледовитом океане угрожает ряд обстоятельств: на них регулярно осуществляется охота, в том числе незаконная; происходит загрязнение окружающей природной среды; постепенно сокращается ледяной покров.

Несмотря на угрожающую им опасность сокращения популяции, что вполне может привести к исчезновению отдельных видов животных, международно-правовое регулирование промысла ластоногих видов животных в настоящее время представляется недостаточным.

До настоящего времени в определенной мере урегулированы правовые вопросы регулирования промысла такой разновидности ластоногих, как тюлени.

Являясь ценным объектом охоты и браконьерства, тюлени в XVIII–XIX вв. подверглись «неистовому» истреблению, что вполне естественно отразилось на численности их популяций. Поэтому не случайно в конце XIX в. стали предприниматься первые попытки установить международные правила по защите и сохранению тюленей [2]. Международные договоры, непосредственным объектом регулирования которых являются отношения между государствами по поводу охраны ластоногих млекопитающих, стали заключаться в начале ХХ в.

Одним из первых международных договоров в рассматриваемой сфере правового регулирования явилась Конвенция о сохранении и защите морских котиков 1911 г., подписанная в г. Вашингтоне.

Спустя некоторое время, в 1957 г., также в Вашингтоне была заключена Конвенция о сохранении котиков северной части Тихого океана. Далее, в 1972 г., в Лондоне была заключена Конвенция о сохранении тюленей Антарктики. В 1992 г. было заключено Соглашение о сотрудничестве в исследовании, сохранении морских млекопитающих и управлении ими в Северной Атлантике [1]. Соответственно, преобладающей тенденцией развития международно-правового регулирования защиты морских млекопитающих является регионализм. При этом важно заметить, что по существу, ни один из указанных выше международных договоров не затрагивает правовое регулирование защиты данных видов млекопитающих в районе Северного Ледовитого океана.

В настоящее время правовое регулирование защиты ластоногих млекопитающих в Северном Ледовитом океане осуществляется в соответствии с нормами международного морского и международного экологического права, регулирующими на универсально-правовом уровне межгосударственные отношения в сфере охраны морской среды.

Базовым источником правового регулирования рассматриваемых правоотношений является Конвенция ООН по морскому праву 1982 г., в ст. 65 которой говорится о праве государств и компетентных международных организаций на запрет, ограничение или регулирование промысла морских млекопитающих более строго, чем это предусмотрено в настоящей части. Государствам необходимо сотрудничать с целью охраны запасов морских млекопитающих, а в отношении китообразных осуществлять, в частности, деятельность через надлежащие международные организации с целью их охраны, управления их запасами и изучения [3]. Важно заметить, что в данном случае отдельно выделены вопросы правовой охраны именно китообразных млекопитающих, а в отношении ластоногих млекопитающих в данной статье не имеется специальных правил.



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