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«EURASIAN INTEGRATION: LEGAL AND EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS Novosibirsk, 3–5 of December 2014 SECOND SCHOOL OF INTERECOLAW Novosibirsk, 4–5 of December ...»

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Э. Лука, доктор юрид. наук, президент Альфабэтикс Дивелопмент энд Инвестмент, Принстон (США) (Афины, Греция) * The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted in 1992 is the first global instrument focusing on biodiversity based on an ecosystem approach rather than the piecemeal approach of species protection adopted under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The CBD has been the first convention that addresses not only the prerogatives of conservation but also the socioeconomic aspects of conservation. The CBD negotiations made obvious the rift between developed countries and developing countries. Developing countries are considered countries richer in biodiversity resources than developed countries. These rich-biodiversity developing countries, the  provider  countries, have strived to change the regime of free access to germplasm resources that prevailed before the adoption of the convention. By 1992, the South was ready to adopt national regulations that would control the access of the North to the biodiversity resources of the South. Certain countries of the South had already accused the North of biopiracy (i.e., taking advantage of germplasm resources without the consent of the country of origin of such resources). On the other hand, developed countries that have the technology, biotechnology, to take advantage of genetic resources, the user countries, were reluctant to share those technologies with the South.

Developing countries were reluctant to accept a global convention on the protection of biodiversity unless it included explicit conditions on how countries were to access the germplasm resources of other countries.

For the South to commit to a biodiversity convention, such a convention would have to include provisions on how the South would benefit from the technology developed based on the exploitation of its resources.

The 1992 CBD provides that access to the natural resources of a country be allowed only with the prior informed consent (PIC) of that country and on mutually agreed terms (MAT). Furthermore, no access to the germplasm resources of a country is allowed without the equitable sharing of benefits derived from the manipulation of resources. The convention states that access to germplasm resources cannot take place without a prior agreement on the equitable sharing of technology that manipulates the resources. The provision, which calls for bilateral agreements regarding the transfer of technologies from technologically advanced developed countries to developing countries, has provoked resistance from the biotechnology industry. This industry has been reluctant to share the profits of biotechnology innovation with developing countries.

After the CBD was adopted many developing countries enacted national regulations for access to their germplasm resources. Most of these regulations have been restrictive of access in the hope that these countries can extract monetary benefits from access fees. The restrictive national provisions curbed the interests of the North in exploring the biodiversity of the South. However, some bioprospecting agreements that have been signed between the North and the South have rarely brought the ‘green gold’ that developing countries thought they would bring.

Тезисы подготовлены для Второй Школы интерэкоправа 2014 г.

* Кто выигрывает от коммерциализации генетических ресурсов... 83 In order to elucidate the regime of ‘access to genetic resource and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of their utilization’ provided for in the CBD, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits (protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing –ABS protocol) was adopted in 2010. The protocol specifies the rules of PIC and it establishes an ABS Clearing-House as a way of sharing information made available by state parties that is relevant for the implementation of the protocol.

State parties have to provide the ABS Clearing-House the following information: 1) national legislation and policies on ABS; 2) national focal points and competent national authorities and 3) evidence of MAT implementation. Other information that can be provided includes: model contractual agreements on ABS, tools of monitoring genetic resources, codes of conduct and best practices.

The protocol specifies that benefits that user countries (typically developed countries) must share with provider  countries (typically developing countries) include those arising from the utilization of genetic resources and the subsequent commercialization of such resources. The benefits are to be shared only with the state that provides such resources—that is the country of origin of such resources—or the state that has acquired such resources in compliance with the provisions of the CBD. The exact details of benefit sharing are to be specified in bilateral contracts signed between provider countries and user countries. While bilateral contractual arrangements are encouraged by the protocol, there is a provision (article 10) for the future establishment of a global multilateral benefit-sharing mechanism.

The protocol further contains measures of compliance. According to article 15(1), state parties to the protocol have to take measures to ensure that genetic resources that are utilized within their jurisdiction have been accessed in accordance with PIC and MAT. Furthermore, article 15(2) of the protocol provides that all parties to the protocol are obliged to take measures to address situations of non-compliance with the measures taken under article 15(1). It is expected, in other words, that state parties to the protocol will collaborate in cases of violation of domestic ABS legislation or the regulations of the provider country. States are expected to recognize and enforce foreign judgments and arbitral awards (article 18 (3)). Article 30 provides for the future development of an international compliance mechanism. It is unclear how such a mechanism would be designed but, ideally, it should include sanctions for lack of compliance. Additionally, a financial mechanism is to be established under the Global Environment Facility to assist with capacity building in the implementation of the protocol (article 25).

Other important provisions of the protocol include the requirement of transparency. Countries have to designate checkpoints the purpose of which is to collect information regarding the PIC, the origins of the genetic resources, the fulfillment of MAT, and the utilization of genetic resources. Ideally, a user of genetic resources must have a certificate of compliance that is published by the ABS Clearing-House (article 17). The certificate of compliance must certify that a specific genetic resource has been obtained in accordance with the PIC and MAT.

Whether the Nagoya protocol will be successful in ensuring access to germplasm resources and the sharing of benefits between user countries and provider countries remains to be seen. The protocol just entered into force on October 12, 2014. The United States, a country with a large biotechnology industry, has yet to ratify the CBD and has not even signed the Nagoya Protocol. Overall, one needs to examine closely the success of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and the modalities established under the protocol in the national and global arenas to make such an assessment.



С. А. Боголюбов, доктор юридических наук, профессор, заслуженный деятель науки Российской Федерации, заведующий отделом аграрного, экологического и природоресурсного законодательства Института законодательства и сравнительного правоведения при Правительстве Российской Федерации (Москва) Возрастает внимание мирового сообщества к ценнейшим углеводородным запасам континентального шельфа Арктики, к ее экономическому и военно-стратегическому положению, влиянию Северного полюса на постоянно изменяющийся климат Земли, транспортному потенциалу северного морского пути.

В Российской Федерации принят ряд основополагающих федеральных, а также региональных актов и документов, регулирующих развитие Арктической зоны Российской Федерации, являющейся важнейшей частью Евразийского пространства.

Поскольку природа Арктики является весьма уязвимой, нуждающейся в повышенных мерах сохранения, восстановления, применения всех правовых способов, предусмотренных для организации рационального природопользования (что является наилучшим методом профилактики загрязнений) и охраны окружающей среды, обеспечения экологической, продовольственной, политической безопасности, правовое регулирование обеспечения устойчивого развития в этой части Евразии приобретает первостепенное значение.

Основная задача по преодолению правовых и социально-экологических проблем в арктическом регионе лежит в сфере экономики и именно поэтому научно обоснованное сочетание экологических, экономических и социальных интересов человека, общества и государства является одним из основных принципов экологического права и законодательства, отраженных и закрепленных в ст. 3 и др. основополагающего в этой области Федерального закона «Об охране окружающей среды» от 10 января 2002 г.

№ 7-ФЗ.

Это проявляется в организации экономических механизмов охраны окружающей среды, осторожном внедрении государственно-частного партнерства, взвешенном распространении рыночных отношений на природные ресурсы, сохранении государственного экологического управления и надзора, упорядочении общественного и производственного контроля наряду с разнообразными и равными формами собственности на природные объекты, поощрении инвестиций и предпринимательской деятельности, направленных на охрану окружающей среды.

В области экологии общие знания других сфер науки и отраслей права переводятся на специфику экологических отношений, философия выживания — на язык правового поведения, уясняются законодательные предписания, анализируются их осуществление и функционирование природоресурсного, правоохранительного и природоохранного механизмов, особенно необходимых и порой болезненно воспринимаемых в арктическом и прилегающих регионах.

Немаловажны для рассматриваемой темы положения преамбулы, ст. 4 и 71 Конституции Российской Федерации об обеспечении ее государственности, суверенитета, целостности и неприкосновенности территории, отнесении к ведению РФ федерального транспорта и путей сообщения, определении статуса и защиты исключительной экономической зоны и континентального шельфа, ответственности за свою Родину перед нынешним и будущими поколениями, нуждающимися в реальной поддержке.

Здесь должны проявиться на деле провозглашенные в ст. 2 и 7 Конституции России задачи построения правового демократического социального государства с обеспечением достойной жизни свободного развития человека, которые предполагают эффективную добычу и справедливое распределение углеводородов и иных полезных ископаемых, традиционное пользование пушными, охотничьими и другими ресурсами, потребление рыбных и владение, распоряжение иными природными объектами.

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