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«Introduction..2 - 10 Chapter One: Evangelical Principles and Hardy’s Fiction.11 - 36 Chapter Two: Nature, the Law and Christian Ethics in The ...»

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No warnings loom, nor whisperings To open out my limitings, And Nescience mutely muses: When a man falls he lies. (45 - 48) The absence of a response that would furnish the necessary knowledge the poet seeks in a sign leaves him to conclude that there is no life after death. Yet as is usual with Hardy, this assertion is subverted by the statement that it is “Nescience” or lack of knowledge which makes the statement: “When a man falls he lies.” There is an underlying hint that true knowledge may have led him to a different conclusion.

Ultimately Hardy resigns himself to the fact that his questions will remain unanswered. In “A Dream Question” Hardy refers to God as “the Inscrutable, the Hid,” acknowledging that God is unfathomable and that the meaning of life and death, suffering and pain will always be shrouded in mystery. Hardy’s art delineates his mental pilgrimage toward an enlightenment that he wished to achieve but which eluded him to the very end of his life.

In his book Dying to Know. Scientific Epistemology and Narrative in Victorian England, George Levine entitles his chapter on Thomas Hardy “I think therefore I’m doomed”.

This could perhaps be rephrased to read “I doubt, therefore I am doomed” to illustrate that Hardy’s fatalistic philosophy of life and the doomed characters and universe he creates in his novels can possibly be attributed to the influence exerted by Biblical principles on his Stotko 58 imagination. Hardy’s fiction and poetry appear to contain elements of Genesis and the Mosaic Law. His work also reflects the doubt that his agnostic leanings caused, which pertains to the supernatural and miraculous described in the gospels. Unlike his contemporaries Swinburne and Edmund Gosse, Hardy was unable to reject Biblical theology in its entirety. Unlike George Eliot and Mrs Humphrey Ward, he did not reinvent Christianity to suit the modern framework. Uniquely, he struggled to map out humanity’s search for happiness on earth. If the laws of the universe followed the pattern laid out in the Old Testament, and the Biblical plan for salvation from the curse on humankind and nature proved untrue, then it would follow that the universe and its inhabitants were doomed. Hardy’s deep pessimism is possibly the result of his interpretation of these fundamental Biblical issues.

The compassionate and sensitive way that Gaskell and Eliot treat their characters, contrasts sharply with Hardy’s treatment of his characters and illustrates how his “negative metaphysics” influenced him as a writer. Particularly Jude and Tess indicate that Hardy’s characters are subjected to pitiless universal laws of suffering and death. They are deprived of a free will and there is no possibility of redemption through mercy. The public outrage that Jude produced (Life 2: 39) reflected, amongst other things, the Victorian reading population’s resistance to the unsparing ruthlessness of the author. Even Hardy’s friend Swinburne was so affected by Jude that he wrote to Hardy “How cruel you are. Only the great and awful father of Pierette and L’Enfant Maudit was ever so merciless to his children” (Life. 2 :40).

Hardy himself describes Jude as “my poor puppet” (Life. 2: 41). It can be argued that the absence of hope, contentment or amelioration in Hardy’s novels marks him as a Maker of doom.

Stotko 59

Bibliography

Bailey, J. O. The Poetry of Thomas Hardy. A Handbook and Commentary. Chapel Hill:

University of North Carolina Press, 1970.

Bakhtin, M. Dialogic and Imagination. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981.

Buckler, William E. The Poetry of Thomas Hardy: A Study in Art and Ideas. NY: NY University Press, 1983.

Collins, L. Hardy and his God: A Liturgy of Unbelief. London: Macmillan, 1990.

Cunningham, V. Everywhere Spoken Against: Dissent in the Victorian Novel. Oxford:

Clarendon Press, 1975.

Davis, P. The Oxford English Literary History. The Victorians 1830 - 1880. Vol. 8. Oxford:

OUP, 2002.

Dickens, Charles. Dombey and Son. London: Collins, n.d.

Eliot, George. Adam Bede. London: Pan Books Ltd, 1977.

Middlemarch. NY: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1961.

Fryckstedt, Monika. Gaskell’s Mary Barton and Ruth: A Challenge to Christian England.

Uppsala: Prometheus Books, 1982.

th Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 5 edition NY: The Modern Language Association of America, 1999.

Gibson, James. ed. Thomas Hardy: The Complete Poems. NY: Palgrave, 2001.

Gittings, R. Thomas Hardy. Bath: The Bath Press, 2001.

Johnson, Trevor. eds. Casebook Series. Thomas Hardy Poems. London: Macmillan Press 1979.

Haight, G. George Eliot. A Biography. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968.

Hands, Timothy. Thomas Hardy: Distracted Preacher? Hardy’s Religious Biography and its Influence on his Novels. London: Macmillan, 1989.

Hardy, Florence. The Life of Thomas Hardy. 2 vols. London: Macmillan and Co., 1933.

Hardy, Thomas. The Distracted Preacher and Other Tales. London: Penguin Books Ltd.,1979.

The Dynasts. London: Macmillan and Co., 1923.

Jude the Obscure. NY: Bantam Books, 1969.

A Laodecian. London: Macmillan and Co., 1903.

The Mayor of Casterbridge. London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1985.

The Return of the Native. London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1999.

Tess of the d’Urbervilles. Johannesburg: Macmillan South Africa (Pty) Ltd., 1982.

The Well Beloved. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Ltd., 2000.

Jay, E. Religion of the Heart. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.

Jê drzejwski, Jan. Thomas Hardy and the Church. NY: St Martin Press Inc., 1996.

King James Bible. ed. S. Scofield. NY: OUP, n.d.

Stotko 60 Knoepflmacher, U. C. Religious Humanism and the Victorian Novel: George Eliot, Walter Pater and Samuel Butler. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1965.

Kramer, Dale. ed. The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Hardy. Cambridge: CUP, 2002.

Lance, St John Butler. Thomas Hardy. Cambridge: CUP, 1978.

Levine, George. Dying to Know: Scientific Epistemology and Narrative in Victorian England.

Chicago: CUP, 2002.

Millgate, Michael, ed. The Life and Works of Thomas Hardy by Thomas Hardy. London:

Macmillan, 1985.

The New International Version Study Bible. ed. Barker, K. Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1985.

Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: OUP, 1998.

Pinion, F. B. A Hardy Companion. A Guide to the Works of Thomas Hardy and their Background. London: Macmillan Press, 1976.

Walder, Dennis. Dickens and Religion. London: George, Allan & Unwin, 1981.

Wordsworth, William. Wordsworth Poetical Works. Ed. Thomas Hutchinson. Oxford: OUP, 1978.



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