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I have been reading books on my Kindle (or Kindle enabled device), how do I cite Kindle books in MLA?
This is a very interesting question, and one that is receiving a great deal of attention in blogs and online forums. The most recent version of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers does not directly address the citation of Kindle books. However, it does cover citing digital files that exist separate from the web (see section 5.7.18). This section explains that to cite such sources in the Works Cited page you should first "determine the kind of work you are citing...and follow the relevant guidelines" for that format (211). Then, in the place for the publication medium, you should insert the file format followed by the word "file."
In the case of the Kindle, I would suggest using the following: “Kindle file” or “Kindle AZW file.” Use the latter if you know the more specific file type. For an example, see the book
citation sample below:
Author Lastname, Author Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Kindle AZW file.
While the Kindle has recently deployed page numbers in their texts, the MLA has yet to formally include how to handle this in their handbook. However, a recently entry in the online handbook FAQ does offer the suggestion to avoid using the page numbers provided by ereaders. The full FAQ can be read here.
Cascardi, Anthony J. Ideologies of History in the Spanish Golden Age.
University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997. Pennsylvania State Romance Studies. Web. 12 Mar. 2007.
Author’s Name or Poster’s Username. “Title of Image or Video.” Media Type Text. Name of Website. Name of Website’s Publisher, date of posting. Medium. date retrieved.
Shimabukuro, Jake. "Ukulele Weeps by Jake Shimabukuro." Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 22 Apr. 2006. Web. 9. Sept. 2010.
How do I cite a definition from an online dictionary, like Dictionary.com, in MLA?
The correct citation for a definition from an online dictionary, Dictionary.com, should include both the original source the definition comes from and the information for the web access.
"Perchloric acid." The American Heritage® Stedman’s Medical Dictionary. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1995. Dictionary.com. Web. 13 Dec. 2010.
The page number is followed—with no space in between—by an “n” to indicate “note,” which is followed—again, with no space in between—by the note number. To cite multiple
The 7th edition of the MLA handbook has this to say about citing the U.S. Constitution:
"In general, do not italicize or enclose in quotation marks the title of laws, acts, and similar documents in either the text or the list of works cited (Declaration of Independence, Constitution of the United States, Taft-Hartley Act). Such titles are usually abbreviated, and the works are cited by sections. The years are added if relevant" (205).
You need only provide either the article number or the amendment number as appropriate.
The complementary parenthetical citation is written as (US Const. amend. XII, sec. 3). You might also reference the U.S. Constitution in the sentence itself and only provide the amendment and section number in the parentheses at the end of the sentence.
How do I cite genealogies and birth/death certificates in MLA?
This is a very particular, and a very peculiar, case. MLA does not offer any guidelines on how to handle genealogies and birth certificates. However, after searching through web, we have
found the following resources that might be useful to you:
Genealogy.com offers a method of citing birth/death certificates. Click here and scroll down to “Official Records.”
How do I cite information from nutrition Labels? Can I just use the label on the food item? Or, should I try to find the information elsewhere?
Part of the reason for citing things in research papers is 1) to help build our credibility—our ethos—as writers, and 2) give the reader the so-called “key features” of the sources that we are using. To that end, it would be best to try and find the nutrition information somewhere more stable than the actual item that is sitting in your cupboard. For example, don't cite the nutrition information for a cheeseburger off of the wrapper the cheeseburger came in. Rather, go to the website of the company that sold the cheeseburger and try to find the information there.
However, if this cannot be done, it may be possible to cite the nutrition label in the following
The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition specifies a kind of standard template, which we will use as the basis from which we can extrapolate your citation. You
should include as much of the following information as possible about the information card:
Name of the Museum/Building/Location (as a Corporate Author). "Title of the Information Card." Location of the Museum/Building/Location: Name of the Museum/Building/Location (now as publisher), Year (when the exhibit, building, or artifact was put up). Medium (in this case, something like pamphlet, plaque, or information brochure).
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