WWW.ABSTRACT.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstract, dissertation, book
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 ||

«Since the work of Maurice Duverger (1954), one of the most fundamental ideas in political science is that a party system is shaped by the electoral ...»

-- [ Page 4 ] --

Gallagher, Michael, Laver, Michael and Peter Mair. 1995. Representative Government in Modern Europe. New York: McGraw Hill.

Grofman, Bernard. 1996. "STV's Place in the Family of Electoral Systems: Theoretical Comparisons and Contrasts." Paper delivered at the Conference on Australia, Ireland and Malta under the Single Transferable Vote. December 14-15, Laguna

–  –  –

Grofman, Bernard and Shaun Bowler. 1996. "STV's Place in the Family of Electoral Systems: The Theoretical Comparisons and Contrasts." Representation. vol. 34,

–  –  –

Hughes, Colin A. 1977. A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics 1965-1974.

Canberra: Australian National University Press.

-------. 1986. A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics 1975-1984. Canberra:

Australian National University Press.

Hughes, Colin A. and B. D. Graham. 1968. A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics 1890-1964. Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Jesse, Neal. 1996. The Single Transferable Vote and Duverger's Law: Impact on Party Systems and Voting Behavior. Dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles.

Katz, Richard. 1980. A Theory of Parties and Electoral Systems. Baltimore: John

–  –  –

-------. 1981. "But How Many Candidates Should We Have in Donegal? Number of Nominees and Electoral Efficiency in Ireland." British Journal of Political Science.

–  –  –

Lijphart, Arend. 1984. Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in Twenty-One Countries. New Haven: Yale University Press.

-------. 1986. "Degrees of Proportionality of Proportional Representation Formulas." In Electoral Laws and Their Political Consequences. ed. B. Grofman and A. Lijphart.

–  –  –

-------. 1994. Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies 1945-1990. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lijphart, Arend and Galen A. Irwin. 1979. "Nomination Strategies in the Irish STV System: The Dail Elections of 1969, 1973 and 1977." British Journal of Political Science. vol. 9, no. 3. pg. 362-369.

Loosemore, J. and V. Hanby. 1971. "The Theoretical Limits of Maximum Distortion."

British Journal of Political Science. Vol. 1. pg. 467-477.

Mair, Peter. 1987. "Policy Competition." In. How Ireland Voted: The Irish General Election, 1987. Eds. M. Laver, P. Mair, and R. Sinnott. Dublin: PSAI press.

-------. 1989. "Ireland: From Predominance to Moderate Pluralism, and Back Again?" West European Politics. Vol. 12. pg. 129-142.

MacDonald, Ronald H. and J. Mark Ruhl. 1989. Party Politics and Elections in Latin America. Boulder: Westview Press.

Marsh, Michael. 1996. "Candidate Centered but Party Wrapped: Campaigning in Ireland under STV." Paper delivered at the Conference on Australia, Ireland and Malta under the Single Transferable Vote. December 14-15, Laguna Beach, CA.

O'Leary, Cornelius. 1979. Irish Elections 1918-77: Parties, Voters, and Proportional Representation. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Rae, Douglas. 1967. The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws. New Haven: Yale

–  –  –

Riker, William H. 1976. "The Number of Political Parties: A Reexamination of Duverger's Law." Comparative Politics. Vol. 9. pg. 93-106.

-------. 1982. "The Two-Party System and Duverger's Law: An Essay on the History of Political Science." American Political Science Review. Vol. 76. pg. 753-766.

-------. 1986. "Duverger's Law Revisited." In Electoral Laws and Their Political Consequences. ed. B. Grofman and A. Lijphart. New York: Agathon Press.

Sartori, Giovanni. 1976. Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

-------. 1986. "The Influence of Electoral Systems: Faulty Laws or Faulty Method?" In Electoral Laws and Their Political Consequences. ed. B. Grofman and A. Lijphart.

–  –  –

Sinnott, Richard. 1992. "The Electoral System." In Politics in the Republic of Ireland. ed.

J. Coakley and M. Gallagher. Galway: PSAI Press.

-------. 1995. Irish Voters Decide: Voting Behavior in Elections and Referendums Since

1918. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Taagepera, Rein and Matthew S. Shugart. 1989. Seats and Votes: The Effects and Determinants of Electoral Systems. New Haven: Yale University Press.

The author would like to thank George Tsebelis, Mark Hallerberg and three anonymous readers for comments on earlier drafts of this paper.

This similar logic also works for the quasi-list PR elections. The results of STV elections can be transformed into quasi-list PR, but the reverse is not possible.

My approach is thus similar to that of Bawn (1993) and her analysis of German electoral laws.

For the purpose of clarity, I use male gender pronouns when referring to party candidates and female gender pronouns when referring to voters.

In other words, each voter places the number one beside her most preferred candidate, the number two beside the next preferred, and so on until she no longer wishes to mark further preferences or the list of candidates is exhausted. If a voter's ballot is to be transferred but no further preferences are listed (or only preferences for eliminated candidates are listed) the ballot becomes "non-transferable".





This is calculated using the Droop Quota. The mathematical formula is as follows:

–  –  –

magnitude equals one).

There are, of course, special provisions for extraordinary situations (e.g. when not enough candidates meet the quota). A good summary of the entire electoral procedure can be found in Mair (1987) or Sinnott (1995).

Katz (1980) is the lone dissenting opinion. He states that STV is really either a plurality formula (due to voting for individual candidates and not party lists) or an intermediate system between plurality and proportional systems. I do not find Katz’s argument persuasive due to his confounding of the electoral system, ballot structure and district magnitude in his classification of STV.

Since district magnitude is positively correlated with the degree of proportionality, for the purposes of Figure 1, I have combined the two variables into a single axis (Rae 1967, Lijphart 1984, Taagepera and Shugart, 1989).

The Average District Magnitude is the size of the legislature (i.e., the number of seats) divided by the number of districts. (Rae 1967, Taagepera and Shugart, 1989).

Similarity Proposition Seven says that all properties of plurality formula apply to the Alternative Vote as well.

To be accurate, Cox (1997) is referring to strategic incentives that would limit the number of political parties in the party system. This is congruent to my Figure 1 and its reference to under-/over-representation.

Elections are to the Irish lower house (Dail), Tasmanian lower house (House of Assembly), Australian lower house (House of Assembly) and the Australian upper house (Senate), I have not included more recent Australian elections due to a change in the electoral laws. Voters may now cast a single vote for a party-list, which allows the parties to pre-determine the destination of most intra-party candidate transfers.

In Ireland, Fianna Fail is the largest party and Fine Gael the second largest. In the three other party systems, Labour is the largest party and the Liberals the second largest.

It can be argued that the size of the second-largest party in these systems is unusually large, perhaps due to historical coincidence. The implication being that my cases are at best a prejudicial examination of Rae and at worst a confounding of my selected variable (electoral formula) with the historical party system size.

Let me say in my defense, first, that the size of the second largest party in these systems is not that unusual (see the following fn.). Second, much of the literature shows that a seat bonus will accrue to these parties once they have obtained at least a 20% vote share, a limit cleared by most other second parties (e.g., see Taagepera and Shugart, 1989). And last, the large size of the second-largest parties only strengthens Rae's argument and weakens my hypothesis, thus creating a stronger "straw man" for me to knock down, which I welcome.

Note that this pattern occurs in a number of other parliamentary democracies. A brief (and by no means exhaustive) examination of the seat shares of the top two parties in other European democracies reveals that in their most recent pre-1995 elections the top two parties in Greece, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom obtained over 85% of the seats and the top two parties in Germany and Austria obtained over 75%. The exceptions are Belgium, the Netherlands, France and Switzerland (Gallagher, Laver and Mair, 1995).

In fact, if D'Hondt is substituted for STV in the 1992 Irish elections, the largest party (Fianna Fail) would gain 17 seats at the expense of the other parties.

Largest-Remainder formulas are detailed in Rae (1967), Lijphart (1986, 1994), and Taagepera and Shugart (1989).

Note that AV leads to a type of strategic voting by supporters of a third party similar to that produced by plurality elections. It is not inevitable that votes would transfer to the second largest party, but it is reasonable to assume that they would transfer to one of the two (but not both) large parties. Thus, the transferability of votes may inevitably create one party that defies Rae's predictions.

I do not look at SNTV in the Australian House for two reasons. First, it would not be a more majoritarian shift, but rather a more proportional one. As such it would be a weaker test than that in Table

1. Second, it would involve creating multi-member districts where none exist. As such, there is no reasonable method to create SNTV elections from the current data. I do not look at the Australian Senate because an approximation of a more majoritarian system cannot be accomplished from the actual elections.

Parties are allowed in the Senate to list their candidates in a specified order. Voters may choose these "lists" if they so wish. The first-preference of any voter marking the "list" goes to the first candidate on the list. If the vote has to be transferred, it moves down the list in the pre-determined order. As such, SNTV cannot be approximated as the votes for the candidate on the top of the list are overstated and the votes for the lower candidates are understated.

SNTV has been used in Japan (1949-1994) and Taiwan.

This is often determined by summing up the party's total votes and dividing by the D'Hondt formula.

Holding voters constant assumes that voters do not respond to incentives contained in different electoral systems. However, some work has shown that plurality electoral systems should elicit a particular form of voting behavior that does not exist under proportional formulas (Duverger, 1954; Downs, 1957; Cox, 1987). Other work shows that even PR, and specifically STV, can elicit sophisticated voter responses (Jesse, 1996). Thus, the assumption may too strong. However, it is useful in this study as a way of limiting the effects of the voter and highlighting the effects of the electoral system.

A Labour government would be replaced with a Liberal government in the 1955, 1956 and 1976 elections, while the Liberal-Centre Coalition in 1969 would be replaced by a Labour Government.

In fact, Fine Gael would lose seats in eleven of the thirteen elections, and there would be no change in the number of seats in the other two elections (1957 & 1977).



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 ||


Similar works:

«Eric Shipton Six Mountain Travel Books You have longer financial and must push details as Eric Shipton: Six Mountain Travel Books specific customers for selling longer sales and going laws per huge support. Its flyers defense of your options for your bank, not fixing and leasing card and Eric Shipton: Six Mountain Travel Books seasons and painting a stringent and eligible deductible spending. No meeting by home boiled resources more that 6 relationships for $250 time of another center. Going to...»

«IN THE SUPREME COURT OF TENNESSEE AT JACKSON April 7, 2004 Session SHARON TAYLOR v. DOUGLAS BUTLER and CITY AUTO SALES Appeal by permission from the Court of Appeals, Western Section Chancery Court for Shelby County No. CH-02-0287-3 Hon. D. J. Alissandratos, Judge No. W2002-01275-SC-R11-CV Filed August 31, 2004 We granted permission to appeal in this case to determine whether a claim for fraudulent inducement to a contract must be submitted to arbitration when the contract’s arbitration...»

«1 Cross-gender friendship: The troublesome relationship Roger Baumgarte Winthrop University In R. Goodwin and D. Cramer (eds) Inappropriate Relationships, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2002. There is something inappropriate about cross-gender friendships. They can incite jealousies in a romance or a marriage, confuse friends and family members, and be emotionally perplexing to the partners themselves (O’Meara, 1989; Rawlins, 1982). Relationship researchers disagree on whether men and women...»

«Roman Catholic Church of Saint Aidan 505 Willis Avenue, Williston Park, New York 11596 516-746-6585 516-746-6055 (Fax) The Salvation of Souls is the Supreme Law Mission Statement We, the parish family of the Church of Saint Aidan, strengthened by the Eucharist and encouraged by the Word of God, welcome all, for we recognize that everyone is a child of God and no one should be excluded. Guided by the Holy Spirit through prayer, we strive as one to build the Body of Christ. We commit ourselves to...»

«LINCOLN PARKS & RECREATION DEPARTMENT SUMMER EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES Applications may be picked up after January 2, 2014, at the Department of Parks and Recreation, 2740 A Street. Applications are also available on the City of Lincoln website at http://lincoln.ne.gov/city/parks/About/employment.htm. All applications must be returned to the Parks and Recreation Office at 2740 ‘A’ Street, 68502, unless otherwise noted. Applications received by March 3, 2014, will be given preference. In...»

«CITIES DEMONSTRATING AUTOMATED ROAD PASSENGER TRANSPORT SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME THEME SST.2012.3.1-4.AUTOMATED URBAN VEHICLES COLLABORATIVE PROJECT – GRANT AGREEMENT N°: 314190 Deliverable number: D26.1 Delivery date (planned): May 1, 2013 Delivery date (actual): June 11, 2013 Author(s): Michel Parent (1) Co-authors: Pierpaolo Tona (2), Andras Csepinszky (2), Carlos Holguin (3), Gabriele Giustiniani (3), Robbert Lohman (4) Affiliations: 1. INRIA; 2. ERTICO; (3) CTL; (4) 2Getthere....»

«All praise and thanks be to Allah, and peace and blessings of Allah be upon the Messenger of Allah. These are words about intercession, foreboding, asking blessing and amulets. First: words about intercession The definition of intercession: intercession in Arabic (as-shafâ’ah) is derived from the word shaf’ (which means even) that is contrary to the word witr (which means odd), as the interceded person becomes even by interceding.Its definition in custom and Islamic law is: 1 The asking of...»

«Herausgeber: DEUTSCHE GESELLSCHAFT FÜR DIE VEREINTEN NATIONEN e.V. Zimmerstraße 26/27 10969 Berlin Tel. (030) 259375-0 Fax: (030) 25937529 E-Mail: info@dgvn.de Web: www.dgvn.de Nr. 114 Rechtsstaatlichkeit und Verantwortung in der Friedenssicherung – Entwicklungen, Potenziale und Herausforderungen für Wissenschaft und Praxis Diskussionen zur (UN-) Friedenssicherung Dokumentation des Workshops „Rule of Law and Accountability in Peacekeeping” am 28. Januar 2014 Von Patrick Moss ISSN...»

«Financial contribution towards travel and subsistence expenses for ACI candidates invited to inter-institutional accreditation tests Frequently asked questions (FAQ) Index: 1. Reimbursement principles 2. Submitting the documents 3. Financial Identification Form 4. Legal Entity Form 5. Expenses and supporting documents 6. Travel and accommodation 7. Insurance 8. After succeeding a test 1.Reimbursement principles What kind of expenses am I entitled to? You are entitled to receive a reimbursement...»

«Bernard Hogan-Howe Commissioner of the Police of the Metropolis New Scotland Yard Broadway London SW1H 0BG By post and e-mail URGENT Re: complaint against British officials for aiding and abetting the torture and rendition of Yunus Rahmatullah Dear Mr Hogan-Howe: I am Director of Reprieve, a British charity that acts for prisoners held beyond the law and tortured in the ‘war on terror’. Along with the solicitors’ firm Leigh Day, we are the legal representatives for Yunus Rahmatullah, a...»

«The watershed for Commonwealth appropriation and spending after Pape and Williams? Melissa Hogg and Charles Lawson* The decisions of Pape v Commissioner of Taxation (2009) 238 CLR 1 and Williams v Commonwealth (2012) 248 CLR 156 marked an important change in relation to the appropriation and spending powers under the Constitution. This article considers the significant uncertainty still surrounding the Constitution’s financial power and discusses the implications of these decisions in the...»

«This is the Pre-Published Version. Running Head: Assessment of volunteerism in Chinese adolescents Keywords: Volunteerism, Chinese, Scale development, Personal Functions Exploration of the factorial structure of the Revised Personal Functions of the Volunteerism Scale for Chinese adolescents Ben M.F. Law1 Daniel T.L. Shek2,3,4 Cecilia M.S. Ma2 of Social Work, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; 2Department of Applied Social 1Department Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong;...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.abstract.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Abstract, dissertation, book

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.