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«SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME THEME SST.2012.3.1-4. AUTOMATED URBAN VEHICLES COLLABORATIVE PROJECT – GRANT AGREEMENT N°: 314190 Deliverable number: ...»

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CITIES DEMONSTRATING AUTOMATED ROAD PASSENGER TRANSPORT

SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME

THEME SST.2012.3.1-4.

AUTOMATED URBAN VEHICLES

COLLABORATIVE PROJECT – GRANT AGREEMENT N°: 314190

Deliverable number: D26.1

Delivery date (planned): May 1, 2013

Delivery date (actual): June 11, 2013

Author(s): Michel Parent (1)

Co-authors: Pierpaolo Tona (2), Andras Csepinszky (2), Carlos Holguin (3), Gabriele Giustiniani (3), Robbert Lohman (4) Affiliations: 1. INRIA; 2. ERTICO; (3) CTL; (4) 2Getthere.

Document control sheet Legal issues and certification of the fully automated vehicles: best practices and lessons learned Title Michel Parent Creator Editor This deliverable looks at the legal framework for the demonstration of fully automated vehicles and at the various demonstrations that took place in the Brief Description past to assist the organisers of future demonstrations.

Publisher Pierpaolo Tona, Andras Csepinszky, Carlos Holguin, Gabriele Giustiniani,… Contributors Deliverable Type (Deliverable/Milestone) Format 21/01/2013 Creation date Version 2 Version number 22/04/2013 Version date Last modified by Rights internal public Dissemination level restricted, access granted to: EU Commission to be revised by Partners involved in the preparation of the deliverable for approval of the WP Manager Action requested for approval of the Internal Reviewer (if required) for approval of the Project Co-ordinator Deadline for approval Version Date Modified by Comments Page | 2 D(xx.yy) deliverable title, version nr.

Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

RELEVANT PREVIOUS PROJECTS ON ARTS

2.1 CYBERCARS

2.2 CYBERMOVE

2.3 CYBERCARS2

2.4 CYBERC3

2.5 CITYMOBIL

2.6 CITYNETMOBIL

3.

OVERVIEW OF THE LEGAL SITUATION AND ISSUES OF FULLY

AUTOMATED VEHICLES

INTRODUCTION

3.1 OVERVIEW OF EMERGING LEGAL FRAMEWORK

3.1.1 US – Nevada, Florida, California, etc.

3.1.2 Europe

3.2

OVERVIEW OF ADAPTATIONS TO EXISTING LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND LESSONS LEARNED

24 3.2.1 PRT – Heathrow airport

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM

PROCEDURES AND ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED

3.2.2 PRT – Masdar

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM

PROCEDURES AND ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED

3.2.3 GRT – Schiphol airport

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM

PROCEDURES AND ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED

3.2.4 GRT – Rivium

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM

PROCEDURES AND ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED

3.2.5 Rome

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM

PROCEDURES AND ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED

3.3 RESEARCH-BASED PROJECT IMPLEMENTATIONS

3.3.1 La Rochelle

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM

PROCEDURES AND ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED

3.3.2 Floriade – Cybercars

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM

PROCEDURES AND ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED

3.3.3 San Diego demonstration

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM

PROCEDURES AND ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED

3.4 MAIN LEGAL ISSUES IDENTIFIED IN EU MEMBER STATES

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3.4.1 Greece

3.4.2 Italy

3.4.3 Spain

3.4.4 Finland

3.4.5 France

4.

CONCLUSIONS

PRELIMINARY RISK REDUCTION

DETERMINE WHICH SAFETY REGULATIONS APPLY

PRODUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SYSTEM

CERTIFICATION OR VALIDATION

5.

GLOSSARY

6.

REFERENCES

6.1 EXISTING STANDARDS RELEVANT FOR ARTS CERTIFICATION

6.2 RULES AND REGULATIONS

6.3 BIBLIOGRAPHY

List of figures FIGURE 1 FINAL DEMONSTRATION OF CYBERCARS IN ANTIBES

FIGURE 2 DEMONSTRATION IN THE FLOREADES (2002)

FIGURE 3 DEMONSTRATION OF CYBERCARS-2 IN LA ROCHELLE (2008)

FIGURE 4 CYBERC3 DEMONSTRATION IN SHANGHAI (2005)

FIGURE 5 PICTURES OF THE SHOWCASES OF IXELLES (L) AND REGGIO CALABRIA (R)............ 16 FIGURE 6 THE CYBERCAR OF SIMSERHOF FORT.

FIGURE 7 ULTRA VEHICLE AT HEATHROW.

FIGURE 8 MASDAR CITY PRT

FIGURE 9 PARKSHUTTLE2 AT RIVIUM

FIGURE 10 MAP OF THE SYSTEM PLANNED AT ROME EXPO

FIGURE 11 ROBOSOFT ROBURIDE FOR ROME

FIGURE 12 CYBUSES FROM YAMAHA/INRIA IN LA ROCHELLE

FIGURE 13 CYBERCABS (YAMAHA/FROG) IN THE FLOREADE SITE

FIGURE 14 EIGHT AUTOMATED VEHICLES ON THE I-15 IN SAN DIEGO

List of tables TABLE 1 AUTOMATION LEVELS

–  –  –

This report looks at the current legislation concerning automated vehicles in various countries, at the potential changes in the legislation and at the steps that can be undertaken to allow the demonstrations of ARTS in CityMobil2 selected cities.

The report also considers the few systems currently in operation and how they were certified but also at various demonstrations of automated vehicles for urban transportation and how these demonstrations were performed without certification but with ad-hoc validation procedures.

For instance, local authorities can grant special permissions for operation of ARTS, but they must assume the legal criminal responsibility of any accident. It is therefore the responsibility of CityMobil2 Project and the ARTS suppliers to reduce this risk to the lowest possible level and to convince them of the safety of the system. This can be done through the methodologies already defined in previous projects (in particular the risk reduction methods) and the use of current and future standards concerning automated vehicles and systems.





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1. Introduction Fully automated vehicles have been a research topic for more than 30 years. In 1994, the Prometheus European project ended 8 years of research with demonstration of fully autonomous driving on the A1 highway near Paris. In 1997, the AHS Project in the USA ended with a demonstration of 8 fully automated vehicles driving in a platoon on a dedicated part of highway I-15 in San Diego. In 2005 the DARPA Challenge ended with 4 vehicles running fully autonomously over an off-road course of more than 200km and in 2007, the DARPA Urban Challenge presented several autonomous vehicles operating simultaneously with other manually driven vehicles in an urban environment. More recently and based essentially on the expertise of the best DARPA teams, Google demonstrated several autonomous vehicles that were driven several thousands of miles in California and Nevada, forcing these states (and Florida) to pass legislation concerning the operation of autonomous vehicles on public roads. In 2010, a team from Parma University demonstrated 2 automated vehicles driving in tandem from Italy to China. The OEM and their suppliers such as Valeo and Continental are also actively working, in particular in Europe, on similar autonomous vehicles. These concepts of "autonomous" (meaning without communication with other vehicles or infrastructure) vehicles might soon appear on the market if the legislative barriers concerning the safety can be lifted. However, this approach does not seem to bring much improvement in terms of road capacity as long as the automatic vehicles are « autonomous » and share the road space with noncooperative vehicles. Furthermore, all these demonstrations involved a driver behind the steering wheel or close-by to take-over the control or abort the automatic operation of the vehicle. Besides, the legality of the operation of such vehicles is still far from obvious as soon as we do not request the driver to be in constant control. The following table was developed in Germany to express the various forms of driving assistance to full automation. As it can be seen from it, the “fully automated” vehicle is still far from being on the road.

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Table 1 Automation levels Another approach was also developed over the last years with the “connected vehicle” approach. Using various forms of communication vehicles can exchange data to improve safety and in particular, to perform coordinated manouvers such as platooning (see SARTRE project) where following vehicles can be fully automated behing a manually driven vehicle (a truck in SARTRE).

However, an alternative approach to fully automatic vehicles has been developed over the years in Europe: the cybercar approach. This approach differs from the previous one as it focuses on urban public vehicles with no driver at all (“fully automated”) but in restricted low driving speed road environments. The cybercars are not "autonomous" but rather cooperative vehicles since their operation is performed based on co-operation with smart road infrastructure and with other road vehicles. The CityMobil2 consortium believes that the cooperation is needed to provide a large improvement in road transport by increasing the capacity of a road network while ensuring high safety and minimizing infrastructure needs (roads and parking places) and energy. Several European projects have allowed the development of the technologies, the emergence of several industrial players and now real life experiments are conducted in several European cities. Furthermore, this approach can provide a realistic deployment of automatic vehicles through the use of dual-mode vehicles that would be fully automated in specific zones dedicated to these vehicles and autonomous under human supervision in mixed traffic.

After looking at various projects involving fully automated vehicles, we will look at the current legislation and we will also look in detail at past projects involving such vehicles. In particular, we will consider several experiments and demonstrations of fully operational cybercars systems, the procedure to allow their implementation and the lessons learned.

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2. Relevant previous projects on ARTS This section presents various projects where ARTS (Automated Road Transport Systems) have been studied and where demonstrations took place. In a latter section, we will examine in details these demonstrations and how the local or national autorities allowed them.

2.1 Cybercars

The CyberCars project was funded by the DG13 (Information Society) of the European Commission between July 2001 and July 2004. Its purpose was to develop the technogies needed for fully automatic vehicles operating at low speed in an urban environment for the implementation of a public transportation system (called CTS for Cybernetic Transportation System) working “on-demand”.

This project came after a number of small companies and public research institutes experimented with such concepts in the 1990’s. In particular, the project was issued from

previous work on automated vehicles concepts developed by:

- Frog Navigation Systems in the Netherlands (ParkShuttles),

- Serpentine in Switzerland (the “capsules”),

- Robosoft and Yamaha in cooperation with INRIA (the CyCab and the CyBus),

- University of Bristol in the UK (the ULTra),

- Palle Jensen in Denmark (the RUF).

The CyberCars project developed and demonstrated numerous technologies including vision systems, navigation systems, platooning, obstacle avoidance, fleet management and automatic recharging.

–  –  –

The demonstrations took place during the sister project CyberMove (see bellow) but many technical demonstrations also took place during the project without any difficulties but always under human supervision. Most of the vehicles also were insured.

TNO started its work on safety evaluation and certification of automated vehicles during the CyberCars project and issued recommendations. Two deliverables were issued on

this topic (publically available on http://www.cybercars.org/indexold.html):

Part 1 - Report on existing guidelines Part 2 - Recommendations for certification procedures Figure 1 Final demonstration of CyberCars in Antibes

2.2 CyberMove The CybeMove project was funded by the DG12 (Research) of the European Commission between December 2001 and December 2004. It is a sister project from CyberCars with almost the same partners. Its purpose was to look into the implementation of a public

–  –  –

The project looked in particular at the benefits cities could gain from such implementation and initiated one large scale demonstration that lasted 6 months during the Floriades flower show in 2002 (see further down for details), one large demonstration in Coimbra in 2003 and one final event in Antibes in 2004 with a demonstration of a ParkShuttle in the streets.

–  –  –

The large-scale demonstration at the Floriades (see details below) was a great success with 25 vehicles and about 400,000 (paying) persons transported without any incident.

However, the operation of the system was made simpler by the fact that it was a private site (no need for meeting the traffic rules) and that the track was protected from intrusions.

The demonstration in Antibes was more difficult to autorize since it was on public streets.

The mayor with just 2 restrictions finally gave the autorization: the road was closed to normal traffic (but not to pedestrians and cyclists) and an operator with emergency stop was always present on-board.

TNO developed during this project a risk reduction methodology that is available on the project web site (http://www.cybermove.org/docs/CM-D32-final-deliverable.pdf). This risk reduction methodology was applied for all the demonstrations.

–  –  –

2.3 Cybercars2 The CyberCars2 project was funded by the DG13 (Information Society) of the European Commission between 2005 and 2009 as a successor of the CyberCars project. Its purpose was to develop further the technologies needed for fully automatic vehicles operating at low speed in an urban environment and, in particular, to look at the cooperation between vehicles using communications technologies in order to improve efficiency while maintaining high safety.



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