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«Department of Animal Production1, Department of Poultry Production2, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt KARIMA A. SHAHIN1 and ...»

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The proportion of total carcass muscle in breast did not altered by diet but those of thigh and neck did altered by diet. Similar findings have been reported by LEESON et al. (1996) and PETER et al. (1997) who found that the proportion of meat in valuable parts of the carcass was influenced less by diet and more by slaughter weight. It seems that the distribution of muscle is influenced by total carcass muscle not by nutritional treatments.

Carcasses of chicks fed high fiber (with either low or high protein) diets had higher proportion of bone, higher proportion of total meat in thigh and neck, but less proportion of boneless carcass than carcasses of chicks fed low fiber (with either low or high protein) diets. Increasing crude fiber in diets resulted in lowering proportion of total fat in breast, thigh but increasing proportion of total fat in drumstick and wing.

Diet did not influence bone weight distribution. It seemed that bone weight distribution is independent of diet.

In the present study, diet significantly affected nearly all muscle: bone, meat: bone and muscle: fat ratios in various carcass parts. These ratios can be used as a measures of SHAHIN; ELAZEEM: Effects of breed, sex and diet of broiler chickens carcass desirability; a higher ratio being better than a low one. It is of interest to note that muscle: bone ratios in breast of chicks fed high fiber diets were lower than corresponding ratios of chicks fed low fiber diets, while the opposite trend was observed for muscle: bone ratios in drumstick. No comparable data were found in the literature.

Genetic and nutritional Interactions Breed x sex, breed x diet and sex x diet interactions did not significantly influence most of carcass traits indicating that the factors under consideration act independently of each other's. The absence of significant interactions on these traits indicated that the effect of diet was essentially the same regardless of breed and sex and indicated that differences between diets tended to be similar for different breeds and sexes. SHAHIN et al. (1996) found significant breed x sex interactions for proportion of total lean in breast and thigh and for proportions of bone in all cuts whereas the differences between males and females were greater in some breeds than in others.

Table 6 Means for major carcass tissues and bone weight distribution with significant sex x diet and breed x diet interactions (Durchschnittswerte der wichtigsten Gewebe- und Knochengewichtsanteile mit signifikanten Geschlecht:Fütterung und Rasse:Fütterung Interaktionen) High Protein Low Protein

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Significant sex x diet interactions was found for carcass fat and boneless carcass relative to live body weight: the sexual dimorphism in low protein diet is more pronounced than in high protein diets (Table 6). These indicated that the effect of diet on the above mentioned traits was dependent on the sex of bird and the differential responses in these traits may be more important than the main effects. Such information is sparse in the literature.

References

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Effect of dietary fiber on broiler performance. Journal of Agricultural Science, Mansoura University. 17 (1992), 3165- 3173

ABDALLAH, O.Y.; SHAHIN, K.A.; SHEMEIS, A.R.:

Arch. Tierz. 48 (2005) 6 Genetic influences on growth and distribution of muscle. lean and edible meat in fowl carcasses. Archiv für Geflügelkunde 54 (1990), 218-223 AOAC Association of Official Analytical Chemists: Official Methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC. (1990)

BARTOV, I. :

Lack of relationship between the effect of dietary factors and withdrawal on carcass quality of of broiler chicks. British Poultry Science. 39 (1998), 426- 433

BARTOV, I.; PLAVNIK, I.:

Moderate excess of dietary protein increases breast meat yield of broiler chicks. Poultry Science 77 (1998), 680- 688

BROADBENT, L.A.; WILSON, B.J.; FISHER, C.:

The composition of the broiler chicken at 56 days of age: output, components and chemical composition. British Poultry Science 22 (1981), 385-390

GODFREY, N.W.; FRAPPLE, P.G.; PATERSON, A.M. ; PAYNE, H.G. :

Differences in composition and tissue distribution of pig carcasses due to selection and feeding level.

Animal Production 53 (1991), 97 - 103

GREY, T.C.; ROBINSON, D.; JONES, J.M.:

Effect of age and sex on the eviscerated yield, muscle and edible offal of a commercial broiler strain.

British Poultry Science 23 (1982), 289-298

JONES, R.L.; WISEMAN, J. :

Effect of nutrition on broiler carcass composition: influence of dietary energy content in the starter and finisher phases. British Poultry Science 26 (1985), 381-388

KHANTAPRAB, S.; NIKKI, T.; NOBUKUNI, K.:

Effect of restricted feed intake on the growth of muscle and fat deposition in broiler chickens. Japanese Poultry Science 34 (1997), 363-372

LEENSTRA, F.R. :

Effect of age, genotype and environment on fat deposition in broiler chickens- a review. World's Poultry Science Journal 42 (1986), 12-25

LEESON, S.; CASTON, L.; SUMMERS, J.D.:

Broiler response to diet energy. Poultry Science 75 (1996), 529- 535

LEESON, S.; SUMMERS, J.D.; CASTON, L.:

Response of broilers to feed restriction or diet dilution in the finisher period. Poultry Science 71 (1992), 2056- 2064

MALONE, G.W.; CHALOUPKA, G.W.; MERKLEY, J.W.; LITTLEFIELD, L.H.:

Evaluation of five commercial broiler crosses. I. Grow out performance. Poultry Science 58 (1979), 509-515

MARKS, H.L. :

Genotype by diet interactions in body and abdominal fat weight in broilers. Poultry Science. 69 (1990), 879-886

MERKLEY, J.W.; WEINLAND, B.T.; MALONE, G.W.; CHALOUPKA, G.W. :

Evaluation of five commercial broiler crosses. 2. Eviscerated yield and component parts. Poultry Science 59 (1980), 1755 – 1760 NRC Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9 th Edition. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

(1994)

ORR, H.L; HUNT, E.C.; RANDALL, C.J.:

Yield of carcass parts, meat, skin and bone of eight strains of broilers. Poultry Science. 63 (1984), 2197 – 2200

PANDEY, N.K.; MAHAPATRA, C.M.; GOYAL, R.C. ; VERMA, S.S. :

Carcass yields, quality and meat composition of broiler chicken as influenced by strain, sex and age.

Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 55 (1985), 371- 380

PETER, W.; DANICKE, S.; JEROCH, H.:

The influence of intensity of nutrition on growth course and fattening performance of French Label broiler. Arch. Tierz., Dummerstorf 40 (1997), 69-84

SAS:

SAS User's Guide. Statistical Analysis System Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA. (1995).

SHAHIN, K.A.; ABDALLAH, O.Y.; SHEMEIS, A.R.:

Genetic influences on growth and partition of fat between depots and its distribution in fowl carcasses.

Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 30 (1990), 673- 681 SHAHIN; ELAZEEM: Effects of breed, sex and diet of broiler chickens

SHAHIN, K.A.; IBRAHIM, S.A.; EL.FAHAM, A.I. :

The effects of breed and sex on carcass composition and tissue distribution of chickens. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 66 (1996), 504-510

SHAHIN, K.A.; SHEMEIS, A.R.; ABDALLAH, O.Y.; SALEH, K.:

Effects of genetic control of subcutaneous fat deposition via using restricted selection indexes on live performance and carcass characteristics of Pekin ducks. Arch. Tierz., Dummerstorf 43 (2000a), 69–77

SHAHIN, K.A.; SHEMEIS, A.R.; ABDALLAH, O.Y.; SALEH, K.:

Selection index alternatives for increased marketing body weight with minimum concomitant reduction in body bone percentage Recourse to tissue dissection on Japanese quail. Arch. Tierz., Dummerstorf 43 (2000b), 535 – 543

SMITH, E.R.; PESTI, G.M. :

Influence of broiler strain cross and dietary protein on the performance of broilers. Poultry Science. 77 (1998), 276-281

WISEMAN, J.; LEWISE, C.E. :

Influence of dietary energy and nutrient concentration on the growth of body weight and carcass components of broiler chickens. Journal of Agricultural Science 131 (1998), 361-371

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