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«Department of Animal Production1, Department of Poultry Production2, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt KARIMA A. SHAHIN1 and ...»

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The only significant differences due to diet were found in breast plus thigh. Chicks fed low protein- high fiber diet had significantly lower breast plus thigh than those fed high protein – low fiber diet (57.5 vs. 58.7).

There were no significant breed x sex, breed x diet and sex x diet interactions for any proportions of total carcass weight found in various cuts. The absence of these interactions indicated that, breeds and sexes were similar in their response to various levels of dietary protein and fibers.

Muscle weight distribution Muscle weight distribution as used here refers to the proportions of anatomically distinct muscle in various cuts in relation to the total musculature. There were no significant differences between breeds and between sexes in muscle weight distribution (Table 4).

The effect of diet upon total muscle in the different parts of the carcass is shown in Table 4. The percentages of breast muscle, drumstick muscle, wing muscle were not significantly different between diets. On the other hand the percentage of thigh muscle was significantly higher in carcasses of chicks fed high protein and high fiber diet than that from chicks fed low protein and low fiber diet. The percentage of neck muscle was significantly higher in birds fed low protein-high fiber diet than that in birds fed low protein- low fiber diets.

There were no significant interaction effects between the effects of breed and sex, breed and diet and sex and diet on proportions of total muscle weight found in various cuts (Table 4).

Arch. Tierz. 48 (2005) 6

–  –  –

a, b, c means in raw bearing different superscripts differ significantly at P 0.05.

*, ** P 0.05 and P 0.01, respectively NS, not significant (P 0.05). +The abbreviation are defined in the text; ++BS, BD, SD interactions almost all not significant Meat weight distribution The distribution of meat weight was not significantly different between breeds and between sexes (Table 4).

Diet had no significant effect on proportion of total carcass meat in breast, thigh, drumstick, leg and neck. The proportion of total meat in wing was significantly higher in birds fed on diet 4 than in those fed diets 2 and 3 but was similar to that fed diet 1.

The proportion of total meat in breast plus thigh (desirable and expensive meat) was significantly higher in birds fed high protein – low fiber diet than that in birds fed low protein – high fiber diet.

There were no significant breed x sex, breed x diet and sex x diet interactions for any proportions of total meat weight found in various cuts.

SHAHIN; ELAZEEM: Effects of breed, sex and diet of broiler chickens Bone weight distribution There were no significant differences between breeds in proportion of total bone found in all cuts studied other than wing (forelimb) and neck (cervical vertebrae) (Table 4).

Anak had significantly higher proportions of bone in wing and neck than Hubbard did.

The proportions of bone in breast, neck, thigh and drumstick were similar in males and females, but the proportion of bone in wing was higher in females than in males.

There were no significant differences between diets in proportion of total bone found in all cuts studied.

There were no significant breed x sex and sex x diet interactions for any proportions of total bone weight found in various cuts (Table 4). The significant breed x diet interaction for proportion of total bone in neck indicated that the effect of diet was dependent on the breed of bird (genetic differences in their response to diets). In that Hubbard birds receiving diets 1, 2 and 4 had lower proportion of total bone in neck than Anak birds, but those receiving diet 3 had higher proportion of total bone in neck than Anak (Table 6). The differences between breeds were greater in high fiber diets than in low fiber diets.

Fat weight distribution Hubbard and Anak tended to have similar proportion of fat in all cuts (Table 4).

Compared with males, females tended to have higher proportion of their total fat posteriorly in thigh, lower proportion in neck and similar proportion of fat in breast, drumstick and wing (Table 4).

The effect of diet on fat weight distribution is presented in Table 4. Birds fed diet 4 had significantly lower proportion of total fat in breast than those fed diet 1 and diet 3.

Birds fed diets 1, 2 and 3 had similar proportion of breast fat. The proportion of thigh fat in birds fed diet 2 was significantly lower than that in birds fed diet 1 and diet 3 but not significantly different from that in birds fed diet 4. The proportion of drumstick fat in birds fed diet 2 was significantly higher than those in birds fed diet 3. It is of interest to note that within high level of protein, increasing crude fiber % resulted in decreased breast fat by 4%, thigh fat by 6.5% but increased drumstick fat by 8% and wing fat by 10.3% (Table 4). It is also worth noting that increasing crude fiber and lowering protein level in the diet resulted in decreased breast fat by 8.7%, thigh fat by 3.4% increased drumstick fat by 3.3% and wing fat by 9.6%.

There were no significant breed x sex, breed x diet and sex x diet interactions for any proportions of total fat weight found in various cuts (Table 4). The non-significant breed x diet interactions for the above mentioned traits indicated that genetic differences did not exist between growing-finishing broilers in their response to diets.





Muscle: bone ratio 'fleshiness'

There were no significant differences between breeds and between sexes in muscle:

bone ratios in various carcass parts (Table 5).

Muscle: bone ratios in breast, drumstick and wing were significantly affected by diet.

Chicks fed low protein-high fiber diet had lower muscle: bone ratio in breast than those fed other diets, Muscle: bone ratios in drumstick in chicks fed high protein-low fiber diet was significantly higher than corresponding values in chicks fed diet 2 and

diet 4. Within each protein level, increasing crude fiber % resulted in lowering muscle:

bone ratio in wing.

Arch. Tierz. 48 (2005) 6

–  –  –

a, b, c means in raw bearing different superscripts differ significantly at P 0.05.

*, ** P 0.05 and P 0.01, respectively; NS, not significant (P 0.05).

+ The abbreviations are defined in the text; ++BS, BD, SD interactions not significant Meat: bone ratio Breed had no significant effect on meat: bone ratios in various cuts.

There were no significant differences between males and females in meat: bone ratios in breast, drumstick, wing and neck, but thigh meat: fat ratio was significantly higher in females than in males.

Irrespective of protein level, increasing fiber level resulted in lowering meat: bone ratios in breast and wing (Table 5). Also, within high level of protein, increasing fiber level led to decreasing meat: bone ratio in thigh and drumstick cuts. Meat: bone ratio in neck was significantly lower in chicks on high protein - high fiber diet than corresponding values in chicks on other diets.

Muscle: fat ratio There were no significant differences between Hubbard and Anak in muscle: fat ratios in various parts of the carcass (Table 5).

Muscle: fat ratios in various parts of the carcass differed with sex. Compared with females, males had higher muscle: fat ratios in breast, thigh, drumstick, wing and neck.

Chicks fed diet 2 had significantly higher muscle: fat ratio in breast and thigh than those fed other diets (Table 5 ). Moreover, within each protein level, chicks fed high fiber diets (2 and 4) had significantly higher muscle: fat ratio in breast than chicks fed low fiber diets (1 and 3). Muscle: fat ratio in wing of chicks fed high protein with either low or high fibers was significantly higher than corresponding values of chicks fed low protein with either low or high fibers.

There were no significant breed x sex, breed x diet and sex x diet interactions for any of muscle: bone ratio 'fleshiness', meat: bone ratio and muscle: fat ratio traits.

SHAHIN; ELAZEEM: Effects of breed, sex and diet of broiler chickens Discussion General trends Carcass composition refers the proportions of muscle, fat and bone in the carcass.

Muscle, bone and fat relative to live body weight were estimated at 40.4%, 11.4% and 15.5% for broiler chickens, 27.9%, 11.8% and 15.9% for Pekin ducklings (SHAHIN et al., 2000a) and 39.7%, 9.6% and 5.6% for the Japanese quail (SHAHIN et al., 2000b).

The carcass muscle: bone ratio in the present study ranged from 2.77 to 4.85 with a mean of 3.57, corresponding value in Pekin ducklings was 2.4 (SHAHIN et al., 2000a) and in Japanese quail was 4.23 (SHAHIN et al., 2000b).

In the present study breast muscle accounted for 40% of the total carcass muscle weight and the thigh muscle accounted for 24% of the total carcass muscle weight.

Corresponding values for in Pekin ducklings were 28 and 20%, respectively (SHAHIN et al., 2000a) and for Japanese quail were 47 and 23% (SHAHIN et al., 2000b).

Fat tended to accumulate differentially in different carcass parts and the patterns of accumulation varies with species. In chickens fat accumulates in great quantity in thigh followed by breast, while in Pekin ducklings the patterns of accumulation were reversed. In chickens, thigh fat comprised approximately 29% of total and breast fat accounted for approximately 19% of total carcass fat, while corresponding values in Pekin ducklings were 16 and 24%, respectively.

Live body weight The present study showed significant differences between breeds and sexes for live body weight. Hubbard was significantly heavier than Anak and males were heavier than females. Similar results have been reported by MALONE et al. (1979) who found that at 8 weeks of age live body weight of Hubbard males exceeded that of females by 24%.

In the present study diet significantly affected live body weight in that increasing fiber level of grower-finisher diets above norm resulted in a decreased of this trait. Similar findings have been reported by ABBAS (1992) who found that increasing crude fiber in diets from 3 to 9% depressed live body weight by 10%, but he found that live body weight was not significantly affected by increasing fiber level from 3 to 5 to 7%.

LEESON et al. (1996) found that reducing the energy level in the diet from 3300 to 2700 Kcal ME/ kg resulted in reduced live body weight at 7 weeks by 11 %. The reduction of live weight could be due to reduced energy content of the fiber diets.

Fibrous diets may prove to be practicable in terms of economy of broiler production (decreases feed costs) especially when high-energy diets are expensive and their prices increase substantially.

Carcass composition and distribution of carcass parts, muscle, meat, fat and bone Proportions of major carcass tissues and distribution of these tissues throughout the carcass is important to carcass value. Manipulation of these traits depends on the combined genetic and nutrition. In the present study Hubbard and Anak did not differ significantly in carcass composition and in distribution of carcass parts, total muscle, total fat, total meat and total bone weight throughout the carcass parts. The absence of breed effect on these traits is probably due to the two breeds did not differ very much genetically and the breeds are compared at the same stage of physiological development (i.e. they are equally mature). These results were at variance with the results obtained by MERKLEY et al. (1980) who reported significant differences Arch. Tierz. 48 (2005) 6 among broiler strains in percentage of yield of carcass parts. They found that the Ross crosses had significantly higher proportion of breast and lower proportion of legs than Hubbard crosses. Also, ORR et al. (1984) found economically important differences between eight Canadian broilers strains in carcass yield characteristics. They found the ratio of the highest to the lowest strains was 1.07 for breast weight and 1.02 for legs.

Ross strain had the highest breast and the lowest legs, while in the Cobb strain the situation was reversed.

Significant differences between dual-purpose type breed and broiler type breed in muscle weight distribution and in fat weight distribution. have been reported by ABDALLAH et al. (1990) and SHAHIN et al. (1990). Also, significant differences between breeds in bone weight distribution have been reported by SHAHIN et al.

(1996). The differences between breeds in distribution of tissues throughout the bird's body reported by those workers were small and probably reflected differences in stage of maturity and may be related to carcass shape. Breed had no significant effect on meat: bone ratios in various cuts. Similar findings have been reported by PANDEY et al. (1985).

Sex significantly affected carcass composition, proportion of total carcass bone in wing, proportion of total carcass fat in thigh and neck. These differences between sexes are in line with the results in the literature. These differences probably arise from metabolic differences and from differences in the onset of fattening.

Males and females did not differ significantly from each other in muscle and meat weight distributions and in yield of all carcass parts. MERKLEY et al. (1980) found significant differences between sexes in the yield of all carcass parts. They found that compared with male broilers, females had greater breast and back but smaller legs.

Also, other workers (BROADBENT et al., 1981; GREY et al., 1982; SHAHIN et al.

1996) found that compared with males, females had higher proportion of total muscle in breast and lower of their total muscle in leg (thigh plus drumstick).

In the present study carcass composition was manipulated by diet in that carcass fat was greatly depressed and carcass muscle was increased consequently muscle: fat ratio was increased via feeding birds high protein accompanied with high fiber diet. The relatively lower proportion of fat in carcasses from chicks fed high fiber diets could be related to their lighter carcass weights and probably to their younger physiological age.



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