WWW.ABSTRACT.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstract, dissertation, book
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 20 | 21 || 23 | 24 |   ...   | 35 |

«Andean roots and tubers: Ahipa, arracacha, maca and yacon M. Hermann and J. Heller, editors Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and ...»

-- [ Page 22 ] --

It is characterized by thorny bushes, Agave, Opuntia and some columnar cacti. Wild crop relatives of this vegetation include Cyclnthera, Phaseolus vulgaris and Psidium.

In the cantons of San Miguel and Guaranda in Bolívar province, the plant can be found in moister habitats and soils of neutral or slightly acid pH (6-7).

This Arracacia species has a striking similarity with cultivated arracacha in terms of morphology (root, leaf and generative characters), life form (perennial) and altitudinal distribution, yet it is sufficiently distinct to be recognized as wild as opposed to merely escaped from cultivation. Local informants interviewed in villages in Chimborazo and Bolívar, especially women, recognized it as a medicinal, the roots or leaves of which are commonly employed in potions to induce post partum placental elimination, in both humans and domestic animals.

In May 1996, this wild arracacha was found above Chanchán in a variety of growth stages ranging from single-leaved seedling plants left from the preceding rainy season to juvenile-vegetative and to mature-generative plants with tubers weighing up to 3 kg, the latter presumably being several years old (Fig. 23C). The seedling forms a thick taproot from which, in the juvenile plant, several tuberous roots emerge. These swell into storage roots which taper up to 1 m in length and can be up to 8 cm thick at their base. These are difficult to recover entirely as they break easily. Apparently, taproots and storage roots are perennial as is the plant. As in cultivated arracacha, a ‘crown’ of cormel-like structures develops on top of the taproot (Fig. 23D). The cormels are not as pronounced as in cultivated arracacha, 144 Arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) Fig. 22. Herbarium specimen of wild Arracacia xanthorrhiza collected in Chimborazo, Ecuador.

(Loc.: Cantón Chunchi, on road Capzol-Huigra, 3 km before train station of Chanchán, 17 May 1996, vern. ‘sacha zanahoria’, 2°16’33.7” S, 78°56’56.2” W, 1600 m asl, Hermann & Santos 1410, UC.) Scale: 10 cm.

Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 21. 145 Fig. 23. Collecting site and storage root of Arracacia xanthorrhiza voucher Hermann & Santos 1410. (Loc.: Ecuador, Cantón Chunchi, on road Capzol-Huigra, 3 km before train station of Chanchán, 2°16’33.7"S, 78°56’56.2”W, 1600 m asl) A: collecting site on road bank, note dry bush (‘estepa espinosa montano bajo’); B: juvenile (vegetative) plants; C: typical storage roots weighing 1-3 kg per plant; D: crown of rootstock from which the plant regenerates in the rainy season (trace drawing indicates scars left from generative shoots) (Photographs: May 1996).

Arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) but rather are depressed and rise only to the soil surface. The cormel is homologous to the propagule in cultivated arracacha, which is called colino or hijuelo in Spanish.

It is a solid stem structure, consisting of starchy storage parenchyma, but it has distinct internodes and nodes at which the leaves are inserted. Some of the otherwise vegetative corms develop generative stalks, as indicated by the trace drawing (Fig. 23D), which emphasizes scars left by such stalks. Leaf shape-and generative characters, such as flower and fruit morphology, as well as seed fragrance are very similar to those of cultivated arracacha.

The cooked root is fibrous, but it has a bland, slightly sweet and umbelliferous taste. The content of physically extractable starch is 14-16% of the fresh root weight.

Although not as pleasant to eat as cultivated arracacha (the flesh remains firm after extended cooking and is more fibrous), this wild arracacha does not have the astringent principles of the Peruvian material described above, and it would therefore have made an attractive caloric food source for prehistoric gatherers. The plant can easily be spotted because of its conspicuous generative shoots, which are up to 1.5 m high, and, as a rule of thumb, the larger ones are associated with bigger roots.

Equipped with a digging tool, a person can harvest 10-20 kg of roots in half an hour in abundant plant populations. Human intervention might have been beneficial to maintaining or even increasing plant populations as seeds shed from harvested plants would have germinated in freshly disturbed sites, where the plant occurs naturally.

Thus early people might have unconsciously maintained populations for sustainable exploitation. Such people would probably not have used the crowns, which trap dead leaves and soil and account for only 10% of total root weight. Presumably, the crown would have been discarded during food preparation. It may have sprouted on garbage heaps, thus eventually leading to the discovery of the most convenient propagation method, which is the replanting of the crown or parts of it.

To my knowledge, the Huigra-Sibambe population is an entity that resembles cultivated arracacha more than any other wild Arracacia germplasm described so far.

It might offer potential for introgressing drought resistance, desiccation resistance of the roots and improved dry-matter partitioning (into the storage roots versus the crown) into the cultivated background. Future explorations should concentrate on mesothermic and periodically dry valleys adjacent to Chimborazo and Bolivar. Such habitats occur across the northern and central Andes, and the Arracacia germplasm in question here might well extend northward into southern Colombia and southward into Peru. In this context, a brief mention of wild arracacha used as emergency food and for “helping women with childbirth” in Cajamarca (adjacent to Ecuador) is most noteworthy (Seminario 1995).





6.2.1.6 Arracacia andina Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 18: 37 (1908). Fig. 4 Plants stout, caulescent, 0.3-1.0 m tall, the foliage and inflorescence minutely squamulose or scaberulous, from a tuberous base. Leaves triangular-ovate to ovate, l0-30 cm long, 15-30 cm broad, 1-2-pinnate, the leaflets lanceolate to ovate, acute to acuminate, 2-10 cm long, l-5 cm broad, mucronate-serrate and usually shallowly Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 21. 147 incised or lobed, sparsely squamulose to hispidulous. Petioles 15-35 cm long. Cauline leaves with moderately inflated sheaths. Inflorescence branching, the peduncles usually whorled, scaberulous at apex. Involucre usually 0. Rays 8-25, slender, spreading-ascending, 2-8 cm long, scaberulous. Involucel of 6-9 linear entire bractlets 2-9 mm long. Petals purple, obovate; styles slender, the stylopodium depressed.

Pedicels 2-10 mm long. Carpophore 2-parted. Fruit ovoid, 6-11 mm long, 4-5 mm broad, obtuse, the ribs very prominent, acute; vittae l-3 in the intervals, 4-6 on the commissure.

List of exsiccatae: BOLIVIA. “Plantae Bolivianae”, Bang 2839 (F, GH, MO, NY, US).

- Ingenio de1 Ovo, Rusby 776 (F, NY-TYPE, US). — ECUADOR. — Cañar: Between Tambo and Suscal, valley of Río Cañar, 2000-3000 m, Camp E-2778 (UC). — Chimborazo: Sibambe, canyon of Río Sibambe, affl. of Río Chanchan, 2460-2550 m, 28 Jan 1945, Fosberg & Giller 22581 (NY, UC, US). — Huigra, Asplund 15452 (S). — Cañar: Between Tambo and Suscal, valley of Río Cañar, 2000-3000 m, Camp E-2778 (UC). — PERU. Cajamarca: Sagástegui & Mostacero 9124 (MO) (specimen cited in Brako and Zarucchi 1993).

Constance maintained this as a separate species on the basis of its broader leaflets and fruit characteristics (Constance 1949), which differentiate it from its closest relative A. xanthorrhiza. However, the similarities between the two species have been discussed in the foregoing account. Perhaps what has to date been considered A. andina is the wild arracacha. Only a revision and more comprehensive material will show whether this entity is conspecific with A. xanthorrhiza, in which case the binomial A. andina would have to be reduced to synonymy.

6.2.1.7 Arracacia equatorialis Constance, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 76: 46 (1949) Plants slender, caulescent, 0.4-0.8 m tall, the foliage somewhat squamulose, from tuberous roots. Leaves triangular-ovate, 6-30 cm long, 7-18 cm broad, biternate or bipinnate, the leaflets ovate to lanceolate, 2-8 cm long, 0.5-3 cm broad, acute or acuminate, mucronate-serrate and usually deeply incised or lobed, squamulose to glabrate. Petioles 10-20 cm long. Cauline leaves with scarious, strongly inflated sheaths. Inflorescence branching, the peduncles usually whorled. Involucre usually

0. Rays 6-15, slender, ascending, 1.5-4 cm long, scaberulous. Involucel of 3-6 ovateacuminate entire narrowly scarious-margined bractlets 2-6 mm long. Petals purple, obovate; styles slender, the stylopodium depressed. Pedicels 2-5 mm long.

Carpophore 2-parted. Fruit ovoid-oblong, 7-9 mm long, 3-4 mm broad, obtuse, the ribs filiform, acute; vittae solitary in the intervals, 2 on the commissure.

List of exsiccatae: ECUADOR. Azuay: Cantón Cuenca, parroquia San Joaquín, barrio Parabón, 1 km W de la carretera, Tapia & Velásquez 58. — Cantón Cuenca, parroquia Cumbe, 28.6 km on road Cuenca-Saraguro, 3000 m, Tapia & Velásquez 133 — 2 km N from Chordeleg on slopes of river bed on left side of road to Cuenca, 2335 m, 7 Aug 1996, Vásconez & Montalvo 16 — Loja: Vicinity of Las Juntas, Rose, Pachano & Arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) Rose 23215 (US, holotype; GH, NY). —S. Pedro-Chinchas (ca. 55 km W of Loja), 1600 m, 1 Mar 1947, Espinosa 1305 (UC). —Cantón Loja, parroquia San Lucas, loc. Bucashi, a 46 km de la via Loja-Cuenca, 16 Feb 1992, Tapia & Velásquez 51. — Cantón Loja, 7 km on old road Loja-Catamayo, 3000 m, Tapia & Velásquez 140 — Above San Pedro de Vilcabamba, 2000 m, Feb 1995, Herrmann 1573. — PERU. — Apurímac: Provincia Andahuaylas, quebrada Posoconi, 2650 m, Vargas 8795. — Cusco: San Sebastian, grassy place on summit of bluff, 3300-3400 m, Pennell 13628. Prov. Cusco, Cerro Sape, frente a Sacsahuamán, cerca a la ciudad de Cusco, 3400 m, Ferreyra 2675. Prov. Paruro, Araypallpa, 3100 m, Vargas 411. — Junín: Prov. Tarma, Huasahuasi, Ruiz & Pavón, Fig. 24. Leaf variation of Arracacia andina (upper row) and Arracacia equatorialis (lower row).

Herbarium specimens in upper row from left to right: Hermann 1523 (Bolivar), Vásconez & Velasco 4 (Bolivar), Hermann 1522 (Chimborazo), Vásconez & Velasco 1 (Chimborazo). Herbarium specimens in lower row from left to right: Vásconez & Montalvo 17 (Loja), Hermann 1543 (Loja), Hermann 1573 (Loja), Hermann 1520 (Azuay). All specimens from Ecuador. Scale: 30 cm.

Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 21. 149 — Entre Palca y Huacapistana, 2400-2700 m, Weberbauer 1745 — Entre Palca y Carpapata, 2500 m, Cerrate 929 — Carpapata, 2500 m, Cerrate 2806 — Quebrada pedregosa, 2300-2500 m, López 802 — Huacapistana, Valle de Tarma, 2400 m, Velarde 722 — Chanchamayo, Isern (Cuatrecasas 2417) — Prov. Huancayo, Huancayo, alrededores, Soukup 3579.

This species is known from southern Ecuador and Peru. It has high overall resemblance with A. xanthorrhiza and A. andina but has been maintained as a separate species because of differences in its fruit, leaf, involucel and oil tube characters (Constance 1949; Mathias and Constance 1976). Also the gracile growth habit and the highly dissected leaf sets the species apart from both A. xanthorrhiza and A. andina (see Fig. 24). I have observed material from Azuay (Vásconez & Montalvo 16) and from Loja (Hermann 1573), southern Ecuador (Fig. 25). The storage roots (diameter up to 3 cm) are smaller than those of A. xanthorrhiza or A. andina;

however, the skin of the roots of this material is very thin and easily rubbed off in

–  –  –

contrast to the paper-like skin of A. andina which can be peeled off entirely. This feature and proximal constrictions of the roots (the ‘necks’ that connect them to the rootstock) suggest close affinity of A. equatorialis with cultivated arracacha.

There is probably too little material available to decide whether A. equatorialis merits species status and what its biosystematic relations with other Arracacia species are.

6.2.1.8 Arracacia incisa Wolff, Bot. Jahrb. 40: 305. 1908 Stout, caulescent, branching, 0.3-1.2 m high, the foliage squamulose; leaves triangular-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 10-25 cm long, ternate-pinnate or bipinnate, the leaflets triangular-ovate to ovate-oblong, acute, cuneate or truncate at base, the lower distinct and short-petiolulate, the upper sessile and the larger pinnately incised, squamulose on margins and along veins on both surfaces, the lower surface paler and reticulate, a squamulose tuft on the upper side of the sulcate rachis at the base of the larger leaflets; petioles 8-16 cm long, narrowly sheathing at base, the sheaths scaberulous on the veins; cauline leaves with wholly sheathing, inconspicuously inflated petioles; inflorescence branching, the peduncles arising axially and terminally, 2-12 cm long, squamulose at apex;

involucre wanting, or of 1 or 2 sheathing bracts; fertile rays 4-8, stout, spreadingascending, 1-4 cm long, scaberulous at least at apex; involucel of 4-8 obovate to lanceolate, scarious, denticulate-margined, unequal bractlets, 5-10 mm long, the green central portion projecting as an acuminate point, exceeding flowers but shorter than fruit; fertile pedicels 2-6, stout, spreading, usually 2-5 mm long, scaberulous; flowers dark purple or greenish, the petals obovate; stylopodium depressed, the styles slender, divaricate; carpophore 2-parted to base, lax; fruit ovoid, 5-8 mm long, 3.5-6 mm broad, the ribs very prominent and corky, acute;

vittae small, 2-3 in the intervals, 3-6 on the commissure, frequently some accessory ones under the ribs or in the intervals; seed scarcely channeled under the intervals, the face deeply sulcate.

List of exsiccatae: PERU. Ancash: Prov. Bolognesi, Capillapunta, Cerro al Sur de Chiquián, 3560 m, Ferreyra 5712, Cerrate 155. — Cusco: Prov. Paucartambo, Paucartambo Valley, Hacienda Churu, 3500 m, Herrera 1391 — Kencumayo 3300 m, Woytkowski 199 — Prov. Cusco, Cusco, Rose & Rose 19034. — Huánuco: Prov.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 20 | 21 || 23 | 24 |   ...   | 35 |


Similar works:

«THE ROLE OF LADY MACBETH IN SHAKESPEARE’S MACBETH: A PRODUCTION THESIS IN ACTING A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College In partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts in The Department of Theatre by Taralyn Adele MacMullen B.A., Greensboro College, 2002 May 2005 Acknowledgements The people who have helped me grow into the actor and person I am are too many to count. I know this...»

«Demystifying Farmer Field School Concepts Kevin D Gallagher 1, Arnoud R Braun 2 and Deborah Duveskog 3 This article responds to the recent paper on farmer field schools (FFS) by Dr. Kristin Davis in the Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, Volume 13, Number 1, page 91-97 which was subsequently noted in the ECAPAPA Newsletter Vol. 9 No. 06. The paper raises some interesting issues in agricultural extension, but tends to confuse some aspects of FFS such as notions of...»

«5~ IJ3 -141 I SBN 958-694-053-5 Biotechnology-Assisted Participatory Plant Breeding: Complement or Contradiction? PPB Monograph No. 3 Ann Mane Thro and Charlie Spillane 1 7 MAR.2ü04 ~.~OaJl] ~, UNICAiJ DE INIO;;M~GICK y OULlJMlNIACION ~ + CBN • CGIAR €I PRGA Program 2003. AlI nghts reserved. PRGA Program Coordination Office Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical {CIA Intematiollol Center for Tropical Agriculture Apa rtado Aéreo 6713 Cali, Colom bia Phone : +57 (2) 4450000 (direct)...»

«BIBLIOGRAPHY A. PRIMARY SOURCES (i) Unpublished Alvord Emery D., “The Gospel of the Plow,” Unpublished, 1950. Gwerengwe J., Estate Manager, Sanyati Main Estate, File: 6.1 Management Meetings, “Minutes of the Meeting Held in the Sanyati Guest House on Saturday 25 February 1989 to Review the Cotton Picker Turn Out.” Ministry of Lands and Water Resources Headquarters, File: H/340 Advertisement of Farms, “Agricultural and Rural Development Authority: Irrigation Plots,” Harare: 1990....»

«Série de publicações do SLE Desenvolvimento Económico Local em Moçambique m-DEL para a planificação distrital Um método para identificar potencialidades económicas e estratégias para a sua promoção Vol. 1 Equipa do estudo: Diana Cáceres, Edgar Cossa, Julião Gueze, Moritz Ordemann, Alexander Schrade, Ute Straub, Sina Uti, Heiko Harms (Coordenação) Em cooperação com Michael Hagedorn (Consultor) Chimoio / Berlim, Dezembro de 2007 Disclaimer: The findings, interpretations and...»

«Approaching The Standards Vol 2 Bass Clef Book CD With CD Not, you suspect this might be to stay almost to an information, from the best details consider during at sending of your importance himself talk a right easier someone with fulfilling time. Just a million backs are personal to be and, moving on when you happen this basis, also inbound upkeep can undertake needed. The is the crumbling image to Approaching the Standards, Vol 2: Bass Clef, Book & CD [With CD] pensions that you will reduce...»

«Demystifying Farmer Field School Concepts Kevin D Gallagher 1, Arnoud R Braun 2 and Deborah Duveskog 3 This article responds to the recent paper on farmer field schools (FFS) by Dr. Kristin Davis in the Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, Volume 13, Number 1, page 91-97 which was subsequently noted in the ECAPAPA Newsletter Vol. 9 No. 06. The paper raises some interesting issues in agricultural extension, but tends to confuse some aspects of FFS such as notions of...»

«EDUCATIONAL POLICIES COMMITTEE MINUTES 12 January 2012 A meeting of the Educational Policies Committee was held on 12 January 2012 at 3 p.m. in Old Main 136 (Champ Hall Conference Room) Present: Larry Smith, Chair Ed Reeve, Curriculum Subcommittee Chair, Engineering Richard Mueller, Academic Standards Subcommittee Chair, Science Brian Warnick, College of Agriculture Nicholas Morrison, Caine College of the Arts (representing Cory Evans) Scott Bates, Emma Eccles Jones College of Education and...»

«1 FRANCO-INDIAN RECONSTRUCTION PROJECT (Project FIR) Undertaken by Association Un-Ami (France)/ Trust Friend-in-need (F.I.N., India) Achievements of the first year April 2005-July 2006 This report was compiled in Sep 2006 1. Exposure Trip for women: From Kameshwaram to Tiruchi (Jan 2006) 2. Creation of Association Un-Ami in France (Feb 2006) 3. Farmer’s Exposure Visit to a public agricultural extension centre KVK, Sikkal (May 2006). 4 4. Exposure Visit to Central Marine Fisheries Research...»

«Farmer Field Schools as a transformative learning space in the rural African setting Deborah Duveskog Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences Department of Urban and Rural Development Uppsala Doctoral Thesis Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala 2013 Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae 2013:47 Cover photo: A Farmer Field School group carrying out field analysis of their crops. (photo: D. Duveskog) ISSN 1652-6880 ISBN 978-91-576-7832-4 © 2013 Deborah Duveskog,...»

«ETE Road Map According to Chapter IV and V of the “Conclusions of the Melk Process and Follow-Up” Item 7b Severe Accidents Related Issues Preliminary Monitoring Report Report to the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management of Austria Vienna, August 2004 ETE Road Map According to Chapter IV and V of the “Conclusions of the Melk Process and Follow-Up” Item 7b Severe Accidents Related Issues Preliminary Monitoring Report Report to the Federal Ministry of...»

«EUROPÄISCHES PROJEKT VS/2012/003/0305 INFORMIERT UND ERFAHREN FÜR EINE NACHHALTIGE LANDWIRTSCHAFT EUROPEAN PROJECT VS/2012/003/0305 INFORMED AND EXPERIENCED FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE TRANSNATIONALE BROSCHÜRE und Die Prozesse der Unterrichtung, Beratung aktiver Beteiligung der Arbeitnehmer im Agrarsektor – eine Perspektive zu einer nachhaltigen Landwirtschaft in Europa TRANSNATIONAL BROCHURE formation and Consultation Processes and the Active lvement of Agricultural Workers and Employees...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.abstract.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Abstract, dissertation, book

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.