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«M.Sc., DEGREE [Choice Based Credit System (CBCS)] Branch IV (A) CHEMISTRY (Specializations in Organic, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry) REGULATIONS ...»

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Unit II Direct, Acid and Basic Dyes Direct cotton dyes (substantive dyes) – Classification, properties, structure and mechanism of dyeing, post treatment of dyeing; Acid dyes and Basic dyes – Classification, Characteristics, trade names, Mechanism of dyeing, Nature of affinity on cellulose and protein fibres.

Unit III Mordant, Azo and Vat Dyes Mordant dyes – classification, methods of application; Metal complex dyes – types of bond formation between dye and various fibres; Azo dyes – Azoic coupling components, protective colloids, electrolytes, stabilisation of diazonium salts, principles and application; Vat dyes and solubilised vat dyes – classification, methods of application, trade names, principles and application, Stripping agents and correction of faulty dyeing.

Unit IV Other Dyes Chemistry involved in the production of Aniline black; Prussian black; Sulphur colours; phthalocyanines; Disperse dyes - classification based on chemical structure, properties and principles of application; Solvent soluble dyes - Nigrosines and Indulines;

Cyanine dyes.

Unit V Colour and Brightening Fluorescent brightening agents (FBA) - Theory and applications; Identification and estimation of dyes on fibres; The action of light on dyes and dyed fibres; Mechanism of fading.

Text Books:

1. K. Venkataraman, The chemistry of synthetic dyes Part I & II, Academic Press, New York, 1952.

2. V. A. Shenai, Introduction to Chemistry of Dyesuffs, Sevak Prakashan Pub., Mumbai, 1991.

Reference books

1. V. A. Shenai, Chemistry of Dyes and Principles of Dyeing Vol.-II, Sevak Prakashan, Mumbai, 1987.

2. V. A. Shenai, Ecology and Textiles, Sevak Publications, Mumbai, 1997.

3. D. M. Nunn, The Dyeing of Synthetic Polymer and Acetate Fibres, Dyers Company, Publication Trust, 1979.

4. V. A. Shenai, Toxicity of Dyes and Intermediates, Sevak Publications, Mumbai, 1998.

–  –  –

Unit I Introduction Sources of Water; Physical and chemical characteristics of water; Water analysis;

Potable water – WTO standard: uses of water Unit II Water Pollution Water pollution – wastewater generation - classification of water pollutants;

constituents and characteristics of wastewater; measurement techniques – sampling, colour & odour, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD, TOC, N & P, suspended solids and bacteriological measurements.

Unit III Wastewater Treatment Wastewater treatment: Pretreatment – screening, grit removal and pre-chlorination; Primary treatment – settling and sedimentation; Secondary treatment – trickling filter process, activated sludge process; Aeration.

Unit IV Industrial Wastewater Treatment Industrial wastewater treatment: Activated sludge treatment plants – mass balances, with and without recycle plants; Types of plants – single tank, contact stabilization, biosorption plants.

Biofilters: Hydraulic film diffusion, two component diffusion; Types of plants – trickling filters, submerged filters and rotating disc; removal of particulate organic matter.

Unit V Treatment Plants Treatment plants for nitrification – mass balances, nitrifying plants and types of plants.

Treatment plant for denitrification - mass balances, denitrifying plants and types of plants;

redox zones in the biomass.

Anaerobic wastewater treatment: Plant types – pretreatment, plant with suspended sludge and filter process.

Text books

1. A.K.De, Environmental Chemistry, Wiley Eastern, 1989.

2. S.K.Banerji, Environmental Chemisty, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 2003.

Reference books

1. L.Winther, Wastewater Engineering, Polyteknisk Forlag, Lyngby, 1978.

2. M.Henze, P.Harremoes, J.C.Jansen and E.Arvin, (Ed.), Wastewater treatment, Springer Verlag, New York, 1995.

3. P.Harremoes, Water Chemistry, Polyteknisk Forlag, Lyngby, 1989.


–  –  –

UNIT I Basic Electrochemical principles Mass transfer processes – migration, diffusion and convection– planar and spherical diffusion – Reversible and Irreversible processes.

UNIT II Methods Based on Diffusion

Principle, instrumentation and applications of the following techniques:

Chronoamperometry; Polarography - Ilkovic equation - Square wave polarography;

Linear Sweep voltammetry – Randles Sevrik equation; Cyclic voltammetry - Normal pulse, Differential pulse and Squarewave voltammetry.

UNIT III Coulometric and Potentiometric Methods Galvanostatic and potentiostatic methods.

Principle, instrumentation and applications of the following techniques: Controlled potential coulometry and electrolysis; Chronocoulometry; Potentiometry and Chronopotentiometry.

UNIT IV Stripping voltammetry Principle, instrumentation and applications of Anodic stripping voltammetry, Cathodic stripping voltammetry and Adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

UNIT V Sine wave methods (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) Principle of Impedance technique - Analysis of Faradaic impedance – Bode Diagrams.

Dynamic electrode techniques Principle, instrumentation and applications of RDE and RRDE techniques.

Text Books

1. D.A.Skoog and D.M.West, Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, Holt Rinehart and Winston Publications, IV Edn, 1982.

2. Willard, Merit, Dean and Settle, Instrumental Methods of Analysis, CBS Publishers and Distributors, IV Edn. 1986 Reference Books

1. B. H. Vassos and G.W. Ewing, Electroanalytical Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons, NY, 1983.

2. A. J. Bard and L.R. Faulkner, Electrochemical methods; Fundamentals and applications, J. Wiley and Sons, NY, 1980,

3. J.Wang, Stripping Analysis, VCH Publications, 1985.

4. A.M. Bond, Modern Polarographic methods in analytical chemistry, Macel Decker Inc., 1980.


Hours L T P C UNIT – I Basic Concepts and Synthetic methods Basics of conducting polymers - Organic - conjugated unsaturated hydrocarbonsChemical Synthesis of conducting polymers – Other synthetic methods UNIT – II Electrochemical Synthesis Electrochemical synthesis of conducting polymers – monomers, electrolytic condition, electrodes and mechanism; Electrochemical synthesis of derivatives of poly pyrrole, polythiophene, polyazulene, polycarbazole, polyindole, polyaniline and polyphenylene.

UNIT – III Semiconducting and Metallic Polymers Structural basis for semiconducting and metallic polymers – introduction; Organic meta polymers - Synthetic route, isomers and electronic structure (polymers like polyacetylene, poly(p-phenylene), polypyrrole, polythiophene, etc.,).

UNIT – IV Doping Electrochemical doping; deadline to the development of conducting polymers; role of reduction and oxidation potential in doping; polyacetylene as electrode materials.

UNIT – V Catalytic Conducting Polymers Catalytic properties of conducting polymers; catalysis of electron donor-acceptor complexes; electrocatalysis by semiconducting polymers.

Text Books

1) Terje A. Skotheim, Ronald L. Elsenbaumer, John R. Reynolds, Handbook of Conducting Polymers, Second Edition, Marcel Dekkar, 1995.

2) Hari Singh Nalwa (Edn), Handbook of Organic Conductive Molecules and Polymers, Four Volumes, Wiley, 1997 Reference Books

1) Jean-Pierre Farges, Organic Conductors, Marcel Dekkar, 1994

2) David B Cotts, Z Reyes, Electrically Conductive Organic Polymers for Advanced William Andrew Inc,1987 Applications,

3) Larry Rupprecht, Conductive Polymers and Plastics, William Andrew Inc, 1999.

4) Raymond B Seymour, New Concepts in Polymer Science, Polymeric Composites, VSP, 1990.

5) Wallace Gordon, Gordon G Wallace, Geoffrey M Spinks, Conductive Electroactive Polymers, CRC Press, 2002


–  –  –

UNIT-I Water, Fuels and Industrial Gases Water - Treatment for domestic and industrial purpose; Fuels- Calorific value, requirement of a fuel, types, refining crude petroleum, octane number, anti-knocking compound; Industrial gases-Manufacture and industrial applications of coal gas, producer gas, water gas, semi-water gas and LPG.

UNIT-II Irrigation Crop seasons - seeds, seed development organization, natural seeds project phase-III, new policy on seed development; Soil- soil reclamation, alkali soil, saline soils, methods for soil reclamation; Irrigation- Environmental degradation and irrigation projects.

UNIT-III Conservation and Fertilizers Soil and water conservation - plant protection; integrated pest management;

Technology mission on oil seeds and pulses; Fertilizers; Effect of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous on plant growth. Manufacture and composition of urea, triple super phosphate, complex fertilizers, mixed fertilizers and biofertilizers; secondary nutrients and micro nutrients-their function in plants.

UNIT-IV Pesticides and Insecticides Pesticides - classification, organic, inorganic and general; methods of application and toxicity; safety measures in using pesticides; Insecticides: plant products-nicotine and pyrithrin; Inorganic pesticides-borates; organic pesticides-DDT and BHC UNIT-V Fungicides and Herbicides Fungicides - sulfur compounds, copper compounds and boredeaux mixture;

Herbicides-Acaricides, Rodenticides, Attractants; Repellents; Preservation of seeds Text Books 1. B.K.Sharma, Industrial Chemistry, Goel Publishing House, Meerut,1992.

2. N.C. Brady, The nature and properties of soils, Eurasia Publishing House, New Delhi, 1977.

3. G.N. Pandey, A Textbook of Chemical Technology, Vol. I & II, Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd, 1997.

Reference Books

–  –  –

UNIT I Carbohydrates Introduction, definition and classification; Monosaccharides – configuration of aldotrioses, aldotetroses, aldopentoses, aldohexoses, Ketohexoses; Deoxy-sugars; Ring structure of monosaccharides; mutarotation; a brief introduction on the structure of disaccharides (sucrose and maltose as representative examples) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose and cyclodextrins as representative examples).

UNIT II Terpenoids Classification; Isoprene rule; Monoterpenoids – structure elucidation and total synthesis of citral, – terpineol and – pinene.

UNIT III Carotenoids Introduction – carotenes, xanthophylls, apocarotenoids, epipasic carotenoids and hypophasic carotenoids; Structure elucidation and total synthesis of – carotene and vitamin – A.

UNIT IV Steroids Classification with examples; nomenclature of steroids; Structure of Cholesterol;

Structure of bile acids.

UNIT V Alkaloids Definition; Occurrence; Extraction of alkaloids; General properties; Classification of alkaloids; Structure elucidation and synthesis of piperine and nicotine.

Text Books

1. I.L. Finar, Organic Chemistry, Vol.II, 5th Edn. Pearson Education Asia Pvt.

Ltd. 2000

2. Atta-Ur-Rahman and M.I.Choudhary, New Trends in Natural Product Chemistry, Gordon & Breach Science Publishers, I Edn., 1998.

3. Pinder, The Chemistry of Terpenes, Chapman and Hall, 1960.

4. Bentley, The Natural Pigments, Interscience, 1960

5. Fisher and Fisher, Steroids, Reinhold, 1959.

Reference Books S.W. Pelletier,Van Nostrand, Chemistry of Alkaloids, Reinhold, 1970.


2. A.A. Newman (Ed.), Chemistry of Terpenes and Terpenoids, Academic Press, London, 1972.

Hendry, The Plant Alkaloids, Churchill Publishers, IV Edn., 1949 3.

4. Templeton, An Introduction to the Chemistry of Terpenoids and Steroids, Butterworths, 1969.


–  –  –

UNIT II Cement Cement - Introduction, types of cement, types of Portland cement, raw materials, quantitative requirements, setting of cement, factors affecting quality of cement.

UNIT III Dyes Dyes - Sensation of colour, classification of dyes, acid dyes, basic dyes, direct dyes, mordant dyes, vat dyes, ingrain dyes, food dyes, application of dyes for cotton fabric.

UNIT IV Pigments and Paints Pigments - white pigment, white lead, blue pigment, ultramarine blue, red pigment, red lead, green pigments, Chrome green.

Paints - constitutions of paint, requirement of a good paint, paint failure.

UNIT V Fertilizers Fertilizers - Plant nutrients, need for fertilizers requirement, classification of fertilizers, natural fertilizers, artificial fertilizers, phosphate fertilizers.

Text Books

1. B.K. Sharma, Industrial Chemistry, Goel Publishing House Pvt Ltd, 1999.

2. M.G. Arora and M. Singh, Industrial Chemistry, Anmol Publications, 1st edition, 1994.

3. G.N. Pandey, A Textbook of Chemical Technology, Vol. I & II, Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd, 1997.

Reference Books

1. B.N. Chakrabarty, Industrial Chemistry, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt Ltd,

2. V. Subrahmaniyan, S. Renganathan, K. Ganesan, S. Ganesh, Applied Chemistry, Scitech Publications, 1998.

3. J.E. Kuria Cose and J. Rajaram, Chemistry in Engineering & Technology, Vol. I & II, Tata Mc Graw Hill, 1984.


Hours L T P C UNIT I Analytical Data Treatment and Evaluation Definition of Terms – Mean, Median, Precision, accuracy. Errors in chemical analysis- systematic errors and random errors.

Treatment of data - Basic statistical concept - Frequency distribution, Average and measure of dispersion, Significance of Gaussian distribution curves, confidence interval of mean, Criteria for rejection of data. Regression and correlation, quality control and control chart.

UNIT II Sampling Preparing the sample for analysis - The effect of sampling uncertainities, gross sample, determination of the size of the sample, analytical sample.

Sampling of solids - Preparation of laboratory sample from gross sample, moisture in the sample, sampling of gases and liquids.

UNIT III Titrimetric Analysis :

Neutralization reactions – theory of acid-base titrations, Tirtration curves and feasibility of reactions, Indicators-theory and choice, calculation of pH during titrations.

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