«Edited by Helene Bie Lilleør and Ulrik Lund-Sørensen Practical Action Publishing Ltd The Schumacher Centre, Bourton on Dunsmore, Rugby, ...»
Evaluating an approach to agricultural technology
adoption in Tanzania
Helene Bie Lilleør and Ulrik Lund-Sørensen
Practical Action Publishing Ltd
The Schumacher Centre,
Bourton on Dunsmore, Rugby,
Warwickshire CV23 9QZ, UK
© Practical Action Publishing and Rockwool Foundation Research Unit, 2013
ISBN 978 1 85339 775 2 Paperback
ISBN 978 1 85339 774 5 Hardback
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The contributors have asserted their rights under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 to be identified as authors of their respective contributions.
Helene Bie Lilleør and Ulrik Lund-Sørensen, eds (2013) Farmers’ Choice: Evaluating an approach to agricultural technology adoption in Tanzania, Practical Action Publishing, Rugby, and Rockwool Foundation Research Unit, Copenhagen.
Since 1974, Practical Action Publishing has published and disseminated books and information in support of international development work throughout the world.
Practical Action Publishing is a trading name of Practical Action Publishing Ltd (Company Reg. No. 1159018), the wholly owned publishing company of Practical Action. Practical Action Publishing trades only in support of its parent charity objectives and any profits are covenanted back to Practical Action (Charity Reg. No. 247257, Group VAT Reg. No. 880 9924 76).
The views represented in each chapter of this book are those of the authors and not necessarily the views of the Rockwool Foundation or its Research Unit.
All authors are listed alphabetically.
All names of private respondents have been changed to ensure anonymity.
Cover photo: Eva Kaas Pedersen Indexed by Liz Fawcett, Harrogate, United Kingdom Typeset by SJI Services, New Delhi Contents Figures, tables, boxes and photo credits vi About the authors viii Preface xii Map of the RIPAT project areas xiv
Photo credits Eva Kaas Pedersen: Chapters 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 Steffen Jöhncke: Chapter 2 Hanne O. Mogensen: Chapters 10, 11 and 12 About the authors Helene Bie Lilleør is Head of Evaluation and a researcher at the Rockwool Foundation Research Unit. She holds an MA in African Area Studies and a PhD in Economics.
She has 10 years of experience working with multinational developmental organizations (the United Nations Development Programme and the World Bank) and doing empirical research in development, combining the world of research with the evaluation of developmental interventions. She has carried out various large-scale data collection surveys in developing countries, upon which most of her recent research has been based, co-authoring with researchers from Tanzania, the World Bank and the University of Oxford.
Ulrik Lund-Sørensen holds an MSc in sociology. He is coordinator of evaluation studies conducted by the Rockwool Foundation Research Unit, and provides managerial advice on the establishment of monitoring and evaluation systems for the practical interventions implemented by the Rockwool Foundation. Mr Lund-Sørensen has worked as a programme officer and consultant for five years in Sub-Saharan Africa, including three years in Tanzania working with UNICEF and the United Nations on policy development and child rights issues. He has experience in managing evaluation studies and in preparing and implementing data collection processes and data analysis, and he coordinated the RIPAT evaluation.
Charles Aben is an agricultural extensionist with a Master’s in Agricultural Management from Reading University in the UK. He is Zonal Coordinator for the National Agricultural Advisory Services, based at the secretariat in Kampala, and has been one of the leading forces in the implementation of agricultural advisory service reform in Uganda. He has a vast amount of experience in the development of technology agro-businesses, in public– private partnerships with agricultural advisory services, and in the involvement of farmer institutions in local government support for smallholder agricultural development. He is undertaking a PhD at Makerere University focusing on climate change adaptation and meso-level institutions in Uganda.
Deborah Duveskog is an agronomist educated at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Cornell University, specializing in tropical land and water management.
Since 1999 she has been based in East Africa and works as the Regional Farmer Field School (FFS) Adviser for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in Nairobi. She wrote many of the FFS guidelines currently in use in eastern and central Africa. She is finalizing a PhD at Uppsala University focusing on farmer empowerment and transformative learning in East African FFS. Her article entitled ‘Farmer Field Schools in rural Kenya: A transformative learning experience’ was published in the Journal of Development Studies 47, 2012.
ix aBoUt tHE aUtHorS Esbern Friis-Hansen works as a senior researcher with the Policy, Governance and Development Group at the Danish Institute for International Studies. He holds an MA and a PhD in Economic Geography from the University of Copenhagen and has 30 years of experience as a development researcher and consultant focusing on smallholder agricultural development in eastern and southern Africa. His research areas cover the local governance of agricultural advisory services and social change in Soroti District in Uganda; local rural institutions and market access for small-scale farmers in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia; and an impact assessment of Farmer Field Schools (FFS) in Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya. He has studied the FFS approach in East Africa for several years and has published a number of research articles on various aspects of the FFS approach. His latest article on this topic was ‘The empowerment route to well-being: An analysis of Farmer Field Schools in East Africa’, published in World Development 40(2), 2012.
Quentin Gausset is a Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor) in the Department of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen. He holds an MSc in anthropology (1992) and a PhD in anthropology (1997) from the Free University of Brussels. He has 15 years of experience with interdisciplinary research on natural resource management, environmental conflicts, agro-forestry and agro-pastoralism in Africa and has done more than four years of fieldwork in Africa, including four months in Tanzania prior to participating in the RIPAT study. He has published extensively in scientific journals and anthologies on the socio-cultural aspects of natural resource management, and with Michael A. Whyte he has edited a book entitled Beyond Territory and Scarcity: Exploring Conflicts over Natural Resource Management, published by the Nordic Africa Institute in Uppsala in 2005.
Steffen Jöhncke is Senior Adviser in the Department of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen, and director of Anthropological Analysis, the department’s research unit for applied anthropology and collaborative projects. He holds degrees in anthropology from the University of Sussex (MA, 1990) and Copenhagen (MSc, 1991, and PhD, 2008).
From 1988 until his current academic appointment, Dr Jöhncke worked as a practising anthropologist in Denmark, particularly in the field of social services and welfare.
Anna Folke Larsen is a PhD student in economics at the University of Copenhagen. She has considerable fieldwork experience in both Tanzania and Vietnam. She has recently taught a course in development economics where the students were asked to carry out empirical analyses on the data collected for the household survey relating to the RIPAT intervention. She headed the team of five Master’s and PhD students from the University of Copenhagen who won the Econometric Game 2012 – an international competition in statistical methods applied to economic data – beating other leading universities such as Harvard, Oxford, and the London School of Economics. In 2012, she was a visiting scholar at the Jameel Poverty Action Lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Despite her short career as a researcher, she has already published a paper on recruitment ties in Vietnam in Review of Development Economics (2011).
Hanne O. Mogensen is a Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor) in the Department of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen, and holds degrees from that department (MSc, 1994, and PhD, 1999). Dr Mogensen has 18 years of experience with research in Africa on family and social organization, particularly focusing on health, including the use and spread of medical knowledge, practice, and technology. She has carried out x FarmErS’ CHoiCE extensive field research in various parts of Africa, particularly in Uganda. Publications
based on her work in Africa include ‘Ugandan women on the move to stay connected:
The concurrency of fixation and liberation’ in Anthropologica 53(1), 2011, and ‘New hopes and new dilemmas: Disclosure and recognition in the time of antiretroviral treatment’ in Morality, Hope and Grief: Anthropologies of AIDS in Africa, edited by H. Dilger and U. Luig in 2011.
Catherine W. Maguzu is a Senior Adviser and the Programme Director at RECODA, where she has worked for nine years on the design, implementation, and evaluation of the RIPAT project series and on other similar agricultural projects. She holds a BA in Community Development (1999) and a Master’s in Community Economics Development (2011). Previously she worked for four years as a health and nutrition coordinator for five districts in Kenya under a Food Security initiative. She has over 12 years of experience as a development consultant in training, socio-economic research, project management, and community development. She has written a case study, ‘Arumeru District’, published in Conservation Agriculture as Practised in Tanzania (2007) and was a contributor to the book Conservation Agriculture: A Manual for Farmers and Extension Workers in Africa (2005).
Eva Kaas Pedersen holds an MSc in anthropology from the University of Copenhagen (2009). Ms Pedersen undertook ethnographic fieldwork in Tanzania for both her BA and MSc degrees, has lived there for a year and a half, and has considerable general knowledge about the country. During her stays in Tanzania she researched into human rights, women’s empowerment and the role of non-governmental organizations in development. She is employed as a research assistant in the Department of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen, specifically to carry out a considerable part of the fieldwork and analyses for the RIPAT study.
Dominick Ringo is the Executive Director of RECODA, where he has worked for nine years. He has a diploma in crop production (1988), a BSc in Agriculture (General) from Sokoine University (1994), and an MSc in Environmental Systems Analysis and Monitoring, in which he specialized in soil degradation and management at the International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences in the Netherlands (1999). He previously worked with the Ministry of Agriculture in Tanzania as a research officer in the soil science department at Uyole (Southern Highland Zone) and then at Selian Agricultural Research Institute (Northern Zone). For the Ministry of Agriculture he dealt with research in soil fertility management, soil survey, agro-forestry, farming systems, and conservation agriculture. He also served as an agricultural training field officer in crop production at the Ministry of Agriculture Training Institute in Uyole.
At RECODA, he has worked as a consultant in agricultural project design, implementation, and evaluation, as well as in organizational capacity building, policy analysis, and advocacy. He has contributed to the design of RIPAT and supervises its implementation.
He has written a case study, ‘Karatu District’, published in Conservation Agriculture as Practised in Tanzania (2007) and was a contributor to the book Conservation Agriculture: a Manual for Farmers and Extension Workers in Africa.
Jens M. Vesterager is Programme Manager (Food Security and Poverty Alleviation) at the Rockwool Foundation. He holds an MSc (1994) and a PhD (2001) in Agriculture (plant nutrition and soil fertility) from the University of Copenhagen (Faculty of Life Sciences).
His research (PhD and post-doctorate) and teaching have focused on maize-based xi aBoUt tHE aUtHorS cropping systems in semi-arid Africa and the added effect of legume intercropping, crop rotation, water conservation, and plant nutrition in general on productivity. From 2003 to 2008 he worked as Senior Adviser/Programme Manager at the Adventist Development and Relief Agency in Denmark, coordinating and managing a number of development and relief projects in seven African countries with frequent travel and project visits.
This work also included capacity building with southern non-governmental organization implementation partners. Since 2008 he has worked at the Rockwool Foundation, and has been responsible for the RIPAT projects in Tanzania – as well as for various development projects in six other countries.
Michael A. Whyte is a Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor) emeritus in the Department of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen. He holds an AB degree from Harvard (1964), and MA (1967) and PhD (1974) degrees in anthropology from the University of Washington. He has carried out fieldwork in eastern Uganda (1969–71), followed by research in western Kenya (1978–79 and 1986) and Lesotho (1989–92). From 1988 onwards, he has returned regularly to Uganda, carrying out academic research as well as development-related and applied work. His research has focused on social structure and kinship, on agricultural change, food security, and development in eastern Uganda and western Kenya, and on issues of health in Lesotho and Uganda. Publications specifically
concerning his work on food in Africa include: ‘“We are not eating our own food here”: