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«D. ANITHA KUMARI THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE ACHARYA N.G RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, RAJENDRANAGAR IN PARTIAI FULFILLMENT OF ...»

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D.41: Days after initiation of experiment. Figures followed by same letter within a column do not difir significantly at P 0.05 R: Resistant and S: Susceptible. Figures in parenthesis are angular transformed values.

Table 26: Growth and development of H. nrmigern on artificial diet impregnated with 10 g of lyophilizcd pod powder of different pigeonpea genotypes (2000-2002)

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DAI: Days after initiation. Figures followed by same 1ette.r in a column do not differ significantly at P 0.05.

R:Resistant and S: Susceptible.Figures in parenthesis are angular transformed values.

on diets containing pod powder of ICPL 87 (319.80 mg) and) followed by lCPL 88039 (58.10 mg). Lowest pupal weights were recorded on ICPL 87091 (206.40 mg) followed by ICP 7203-1 (21 1.70 mg), ICPL84060 (2 15.40 mg). Longest pupal period was recorded in larvae reared on diets containing lyophilized pod powder of T 21 (12.83 days). Lowest adult emergence was noticed in ICP 7203-1 (46.67%).

Among the long-duration genotypes larval weights were lowest on ICPL 871 19 (47.9 mg) and longest larval period was recorded in larvae reared on lCPL 332 (24.67 days) followed by ICPL 871 19 (22.17 days). Longest pupal period was recorded in larvae reared on diets containing lyophilized pod powder of lCPL 84060 (13.5 days). When the larval were reared on artificial diet impregnated with the lyophilized leaf and lyophilized pod powder there was significant difference in the per cent pupation and per cent adult emergence. When the larvae were reared on diets containing lyophilized pod powder lowest pupation was recorded on ICPL 332 (56.67%). Fecundity and egg viability of adults emerging from larvae reared on different genotypes did not differ significantly.

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Iyophilized leaf powder and lyophilized pod powders impregnated in artificial diet of pigeonpea genotypes indicated (Table 27) that there was a positive and significant correlation between larval weight and pod damage (0.71), larval

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damage (0.55), and pupation per cent and pod damage (0.63). Principal component analysis of 12 pigeonpea genotypes based on biological effects of leaf and pod powder impregnated into artificial diet indicated that T 21, 1CP 7035, ICP 7203-1, lCPL 98008, lCPL 871 19 are resistant genotypes; ICPL 98001 is a susceptible Table 27: Comlationr between damage parameten of larvae reared on lyophilired Leaf powden and lyophllised pod powden impregnated in artificial diet of 12 pigeonpea genotype6 (2000-2002)

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* Significantly different at 5% probability genotype; lCPL 87, ICPL 87091, ICPL 88039, ICPL 187-1, ICP 84060 are moderately resistant genotypes (Fig. 13).

4.2.2.7 Larval feeding on inflorescences of 12 pigeonpea genotypes

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pigeonpea genotypes was observed under laboratory conditions. Highest larval mortality was observed on ICPL 332 (56.67%) followed by ICP 7035 (50.00%) among long-duration genotypes and in lCPL 88039 (40.00%) and lCPL 98001 (40.00%) in case of short-duration genotypes. Highest weight gain was observed on ICP 7035 (133.14%) and there was no significant difference among the short duration genotypes (Table 28).

4.2.3 Trichome types and their density in 12 pigeonpea genotypes Five morphologically distinct types of trichomes (Type A-E) were identified from pods and calyx of the 12 pigeonpea genotypes under a simple microscope (40x). Type A trichome have a long tubular neck. It is longer than all other trichomes except Type D. Type B is globular. Type C trichomes are unsegmented and nonglobular. Type D is similar to Type A except for the base. The base is absent in Type D trichomes. Type E Trichomes are shorter than all other types.

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genotypes. In the calyxes Type A, C, D and E trichomes were present in all the genotypes but Type B trichomes were absent in short-duration genotypes such as lCPL 87091, lCPL 871 19, and lCPL 88039. Type A and Type D trichomes were present in greater density compared to Type B, C, E. In the flower calyx, highest FIg 13: Principal cornponeat analysl of 12 pigcanpea genotype8 bawd on bblogkal effect8 of leaf and pod powder impregnated Into afllficlal diet Table 28: Growth of neonate larvae of H.armigera on inflorescenca of 12 pigeonpea genotypes under Laboratory conditions (2001-2002)

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DAI: Days after initiation. Figures followed by same letter in a column do not differ significantly at P 0.05.

R: Resistant and S: Susceptible.

Weight gain = (Final weight Initial weight) / Initial weight'100 number of Type A trichomes were present on ICPL 88039 (171.67) and lowest on T 21 (6.67). Type B trichomes were highest on long-duration genotypes such as ICPL 87119 (33.33) and lowest on ICP 7035 (18.33). Type C trichomes are highest in ICPL 871 19 (61.61), Type D in ICP 7035 (66.33) and Type E in ICPL 84060 (2.33).

Type C trichomes were highest on ICPL 98008 (75.00) and lowest on ICPL 87091 (7.50). Type D trichomes were highest on lCPL 98008 (96.67) and lowest on ICPL 332 (3.33) and absent in ICPL 98001 and ICPL 871 19 (Table 29). Greater number of Type E trichomes were present on ICP 7203-1 (2.67), lCPL 84060 (2.33).

Among short duration genotypes Type A trichomes are higher in ICPL 88039 (1 71.67) and Type B trichomes in ICPL 87091 (1 3.33).





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There were significant differences in the trichome density among the genotypes tested. Type D trichornes were present in greater density compared to Type A. Type A trichomes were highest on ICP 7035 (1 18.33) and lowest on ICPL 84060 (7.33).

Type B trichomes were higest on T 21 (33.33). Type C were greater on T 21 (145.00). Type D were greater on ICP 7035 (126.67). Type E trichomes did not differ significantly among the genotypes examined (Table 30).

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Estimation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium 4.2.4.1 Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents in flowers differed significantly (Table 3 1). Lowest nitrogen content (1.98%) was observed in flowers of T 21 while highest nitrogen content was observed in flowers of ICPL 332 (2.65%). Among the flowers of long duration genotypes ICPL 871 19 had lowest phosphorus content (0.23) while highest phosphorus content was observed in ICPL Table 29: Mean density of five different types of trichomw on upper end lower interveinal nurfece of flowers of 12 pigeonpea genotypes (2001-2002)

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Mean followed by same letters in a column do not differ significantly.

R - Resistant check and S- Susceptible check.

Table 31: Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and protein content (%) of flowers of 12 pigeonpee genotypes (2001-2002)

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- R Resistant check and S. Susceptible check.

Mean followed by same letters in a column do not differ significantly 98008 (0.32%). Among shon duration genotypes highest potassium content was observed in ICPL 332 (1.74%) and lowest in ICPL 871 19 (1.21%).

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pigeonpea genotypes differed significantly (Table 32). Lowest nitrogen content was observed in ICPL 88039 (2.16%) among highest in ICPL 84060 (2.86%). followed by ICPL 7203-1 (2.67%). Lowest phosphorus content was observed in T 21 (0.26%) and highest in ICPL187-1 (0.35%). Potassium content was highest in the resistant check ICPL88039 (1.57%) followed by ICPL 98001 (1.54%) and lowest in ICPL 98008 (1.13%).

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tested differed significantly (Table 31). The protein content of flowers was more compared to that of pods. Highest protein content was observed in the flowers of ICP 332 (16.56%) and lowest in T 21 (12.36%). Highest protein content was observed in pods of ICPL 84060 (17.85%), among long duration genotypes and ICPL 7203-1 (16.65%) among short duration genotypes. Lowest protein content was observed in pods of ICPL 88039 (13.51%). followed by ICPL 98008 (13.78%).

Because of the greater protein content in flowers of ICPL 7035, more damage was observed in flowers of this genotype by H. armigera (Table 32).

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significantly. The sugar content in pods was greater than in the leaves (Table 33).

Highest sugar content was observed in leaves of ICPL 187-1 (9.57%), followed by Table 32: Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and protein content (%) of pods of 12 pigeonpea genotypes (2001-2002)

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R - Resistant check and S - Susceptible check.

Mean followed by same letters in a column do not differ significantly at P 0.05 Table 33: Percentage of sugars in leaves and pods of 12 pigeonpea genotypes (2001-2002)

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observed in leaves of ICPL 84060 (3.66%) and higher in ICPL 332 (9.40%). In case of pods, sugar content was greater in lCPL 187-1 (10.70%) and lowest in T 21 (7.80) among short duration genotypes. Among long duration genotypes highest sugar content was observed in ICPL 871 19 (9.70).

The principal component analysis of 12 pigeonpea genotypes based on biochemical characters (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in the plant, per cent of sugars and pod damage) revealed that ICPL 332, ICPL 87091, lCPL 87, ICP 7035, ICPL 88039 are resistant genotypes; ICPL 871 19 and T 21 are susceptible genotypes ICPL 98001, ICP 7203-1, ICPL 187-1 and ICPL 84060 are moderately resistant genotypes (Fig.14).

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feeding by the 3d, 4*, and 5* instars of H.armigera, when presented at pod surface equivalents. When the bioassay was conducted using 3d instar larvae the antifeedant activity was highest (0.43) in ICPL 332 treated disc (glass fibre disc containing ICPL 332 pod extract extracted in hexane) (Table 34). But highest antifeedant activity was observed in ICPL 87 (0.22) treated disc (glass fibre disc containing ICPL 87 pod extract extracted in methane). When the bioassay was conducted using 4* instar larvae the antifeedant activity was highest in ICPL 332 (-0.18) treated disc (glass fibre disc containing ICPL 332 pod extract extracted in hexane). For S~ instar also highest antifeedant activity was observed on ICPL 332 (2.25) treated disc (glass fibre disc containing ICPL 332 pod extract extracted in Figl4: Principal component analylir of 12 pigeonpen genotyprr baaed on biochemical characters and pod damage The amount of leaf discs consumed was greater for ICPL 87 (susceptible hexane).

check) compared to that of the ICPL 332 (resistant check). Significantly more discs treated with hexane and methanol were consumed compared with the respective controls. The methanol extract was most stimulatory, followed by the hexane

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index was highest (13.33) in ICPL 332 treated disc (glass fibre disc containing ICPL 332 pod extract extracted in hexane) (Table 35). Lowest feeding index was recorded (-15.89) in ICPL 87 treated disc (glass fibre disc containing ICPL 87 pod extract extracted in hexane). The feeding index was highest in ICPL 332 (36.61) in ICPL 332 treated disc (glass fibre disc containing ICPL 332 pod extract extracted in methanol). When the bioassay was conducted using 4'h instar larvae the feeding index was highest (38.51) in lCPL 332 treated disc (glass fibre disc containing ICPL 332 pod extract extracted in hexane). For 5" instar also highest feeding index (12.33) was recorded for ICPL 332 (glass fibre disc containing ICPL 332 pod extract extracted in hexane).

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24 hours of observation (Table 36). After 48 hrs, lowest feeding was observed in Table 36: Relative feeding preference by the third instar larva of H. armigera towards leaves of 12 pigeonpea genotypes under no-choice conditions (2001-2002)

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R - Resistant check, S - Susceptible check.

Means followed by same letter do not differ significantly.

Damage rating (1=10% leaves damage and 9=80% leaves damage) leaves of ICPL 84060 (DR = 0.30) followed by ICPL 98008 (0.40). Highest damage rating was observed in leaves of ICPL 87091 and ICPL 87 119 (4.10).

Feeding preference under dual-choice conditions 4.2.6.1.2 There were no significant differences among the genotypes tested (Table 37). Greater feeding was observed on leaves of ICPL 87091 (2.17) compared to those of the susceptible check, ICPL 87 (1.33). Lowest feeding was observed on T 21 leaves (0.66) compared to the susceptible check ICPL 87 (1.33). Positive 't' values were recorded for all the genotypes indicating that the larvae preferred to feed on the leaves of the susceptible check ICPL 87.

Relative preference by the 3d instar larvae towards flowers of 12 4.2.6.2

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Feeding preference under no-choice conditions 4.2.6.2.1 There were no significant differences in feeding preference by the 31d instar larvae towards the flowers of different pigeonpea genotypes (Table 38).

However, highest feeding was recorded in flowers of ICP 7203-1 (DR = 7.40) followed by ICPL 87091 (7.00) among short-duration genotypes and lowest in case of ICPL 187-1 (4.20). Among the long-duration genotypes lowest feeding was observed on flowers of ICPL 84060 (4.10) and ICPL 871 19 (7.00).

Feeding preference under dual-choice conditions 4.2.6.2.2

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comparison to the susceptible check, ICPL 87 (6.83). Negative 't' values were recorded for ICP 7035 indicating more damage rating in ICP 7035 compared to the Table 37: Relative feeding preference by the third instar larvae of H.arntigera toward1 leaves of 12 pigeonpea genotypes under dual- choice conditions (2001-2002)

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ICPL 187-1 ICP 7203-1 ICPL 87091 ICPL 88039 ICPL 98001 ICPL 98008 T 21 ICPL 84060 ICPL 87119 ICP 7035 ICPL 332 (R) *Damage rating 1=10% of leaves damaged 9 4 0 % leaves damaged.

Table 38: Relative feeding preference by the third instar larva of H. armigera towards flowen of 12 pigeonpea genotypes under no-choice conditions (2001-2002)

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F prob.

LSD at 5%

- R Resistant check, S Susceptible chock.

Mean followed by same letter do not differ significantly.



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