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«D. ANITHA KUMARI THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE ACHARYA N.G RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, RAJENDRANAGAR IN PARTIAI FULFILLMENT OF ...»

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among the 12 pigeonpea genotypes tested (Table 14). Highest grain yield was recorded in ICPL 332 (4530.75 kg ha") but slope was less than one and high residual mean square values indicating its unstability over the seasons followed by ICPL 332, highest grain yield was recorded in ICPL 84060 (2509.75 kg ha") with slope slightly greater than one indicating its unstability. In case of short duration varieties highest grain yield was recorded in ICPL 187-1 (3423.00 kg ham').

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Higher pod damage ratings were recorded in ICPL 98001 (7.00). ICPL 98008 (7.00), ICP 7035 (7.00) and ICPL 332 (7.00). Lowest pod damage ratings were recorded in ICPL 84060 (4.00) and ICPL 871 19 (4.00). For ICPL 187-1, ICPL 84060, and T 21 the slope was slightly greater than one, indicating that there was resistance to be unstable over seasons. In ICPL 88039 the regression coefficient was I indicating that it is unstable in its resistance, and it will not support more larvae under higher infestation (Table 15).

Table 13: Estimates of stability of grain yield in 12 pigeonpea genotypes tested over four seasons (2000-2002)

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R - Resistant, S - Susceptible, bi = slope of regression line, SEbi - Standard error of bi, 6i2 Residual mean squares.

*, ** Significant at P 0.05 and 0.01 respectively.

Table 14: Estimates of stability of grain yield kg per ha in 12 pigeonpea genotypes tested over four seasons (2000-2002)

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R - Resistant, S - Susceptible, bi = slope of regression line, SEbi - Standard error of bi, 6i2- Residual mean squares.

Table 15: Estimates of stability of 12 pigeonpea genotypes tested for resistance to H.armigera over four seasons (2000-2002)

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R - Resistant, S - Susceptible, bi = slope of regression line, SEbi - Standard error of bi, 6iZ- Residual mean squares.

Per cent pod damage 4.1.6.5

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and ICPL 87 had regression coefficient greater than unity and these genotypes suffered greater pod damage with an increase in intensity of infestation. Highest pod damage was observed in ICPL 871 19 (78%) and lowest in lCPL 332 (50%) in case of long duration genotypes Among short duration genotypes highest pod damage was observed in ICPL 87 (74%) and ICPL 98001 (72%) and lowest in case of ICPL 187-1 (39%).

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Oviposition non-preference under no-choice conditions 4.2.1.1 There was a considerable variation in the oviposition preference of the female moths towards the pigeonpea genotypes tested. Under no- choice cage conditions, the moths laid an average of 97 to 381 eggs per female (Table 17 and Fig.5). Among the genotypes tested there were 176 eggs per female on ICPL 332 (resistant check) compared to 381 eggs on ICPL 87 (susceptible check). Among the short duration genotypes lowest numbers of eggs 97 eggs per female were recorded on T 21 followed by 137.60 eggs on ICPL 98008. Among the long-duration genotypes, lowest numbers of eggs were recorded on ICPL 84060 (133 eggs per female), followed by ICP 7035 (200 eggs) and ICPL 871 19 (240 eggs). The genotypes ICPL 87091, lCPL 871 19 were preferred as substrate for oviposition while lCPL 87 was highly preferred for oviposition by the H.armigera females.

Table 16: Stability of resistance based on percentage pod damage to H.urnrigera in 12 pigeonpea genotypes tested over four seasons (2000-2002)

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R - Resistant, S - Susceptible, bi = slope of regression line, SEbi - Standard error of bi, 6i2- Residual mean squares.

* * Significant at P 0.0 1 Table 17: Relative ovipositional preference by the H. armigera females towards 12 pigeonpea genotypes under no-choice cage conditions (2000-2002)

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Controls ICPL332 (R) ICPL87 (S)

- R Resistant check, S Susceptible check, ROP Relative oviposition preference in relation to ICPL 87 Oviposition non-preference under dual- choice conditions 4.2.1.2 Under dual-choice cage conditions significantly less number of eggs were laid on ICPL 187-1 (48.80), ICPL 84060 (37.27). ICPL 87119 (43.93) and ICPL 332 (56.53) as compared to the susceptible cultivar ICPL 87. The relative oviposition preference for all the test cultivars was lower than ICPL 87 under nochoice, dual-choice and multi-choice conditions (Table 18 and Fig.6).

Oviposition non-preference under multi-choice conditions 4.2.1.3

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average 91.67 (ICPL 332) to 272.33 (ICPL 87) eggs on 12 genotypes of pigeonpea.

Among the short-duration genotypes lowest numbers of eggs were laid on ICPL 98001 (1 13.33) followed by T 21 (131.67). ICPL 88039 (160.00), ICP 7203-1 (163.33). The genotypes ICPL 87 (272.33), ICPL 98008 (240.33) and ICPL 87091 (208.33) were highly preferred for oviposition by the H. armigera females under multi-choice cage conditions. Among the long-duration genotypes lowest numbers of eggs were laid on ICPL 84060 (133.33) and ICP 7035 (196.67) were highly preferred for oviposition. Relative oviposition preference in relation to ICPL 87 was negative for all the genotypes tested (Table 19 and Fig.7).

Antibiosis mechanism of resistance to H.armigera 4.2.2

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experiment were higher on ICP 7035 (3.8 mg) and ICPL 332 (3.8 mg) among the Table 18: Relative oviposition preference by the H. armigera females towards 12 pigeonpea genotypes under dual choice cage conditions (2000-2002)

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* Significant at P=0.050; R = Resistance check;

ROP = Relative oviposition preference in relation to ICPL 87.

Table 19: Relative ovipositional preference by the H. armigera females towards 12 pigeonpea genotypes under multi choice conditions (2000-2002)

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R - Resistant check, S Susceptible check, ROP Relative oviposition preference in relation to ICPL 87.

long duration genotypes. In case of short duration genotypes highest larval weights were recorded on T 21 (4.6 mg) and ICPL 187-1 (4.8 mg) (Table 20).

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duration genotypes lowest larval weight of 70.8 mg per larva was recorded on ICPE 88039 as compared to 79.2 mg per larva on ICPL 87. The mean larval weights at 15

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(221.4 mg) and ICPL 187-1 (223.2 mg) as compared to 237.3 mg on ICPL 87.

Longest larval period was recorded on ICPL 98008 (30 days), as compared to 22

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mg), as compared to 227.2 mg on ICP 7035 (Table 20). Longest larval period was recorded on ICPL 84060 (32 days). Longest pupal period was recorded in larvae reared on the resistant check, ICPL 332 (17 days). Lowest adult emergence was recorded on ICPL 87119 (16 %), followed by ICPL 332 (18%) and ICPL 84060 (20%) (Table 20 and Fig.8).

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flowers and pods was highest in ICPL 332 (10.8 mg) in case of long duration genotypes. In case of short duration genotypes highest larval weight was recorded on ICPL 88039 (10.1 mg). Among the short-duration genotypes the weights of the larvae at 10 days after initiation of experiment on the flowers and pods of ICPL 87091 (191.50 mg), ICPL 187-1 (183.10 mg), ICPL 98008 (178.80 mg) and ICP 7203-1 (162.00 mg) were lower compared to the larvae reared on ICPL 87 (238.70

m ) Larval weight of 15 days after initiation of the experiment was highest in g.

ICPL 87 (326.0 mg) and lowest on ICP 7203-1 (209.6 mg) among the short duration genotypes. In case of long duration genotypes lowest larval weight was recorded on ICPL 84060 (192.1 mg). Among the long duration genotypes weights of larvae at 10 days after initiation in ICPL 84060 (148.33 mg) and ICPL 332 (184.40 mg) compared to ICPL 87 (238.70 mg). Longest larval period was recorded on T 21 (24 days) followed by ICPL 98008 (23.80 days). Pupal period was relatively shorter when the larvae were reared on ICPL 88039 (9.8 days) and ICPL 87 (10.3 days).

Lowest pupation and adult emergence were recorded on T 21 (38% and 24% respectively). Highest adult emergence was recorded on ICPL 87 (56%). Among the long-duration genotypes, longest larval period was recorded on ICPL 332 (24.1 days), followed by those reared on ICPL 84060 (24 days). Pupal period was 14 days on ICPL 332 (Table 21 and Fig. 9).

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leaves, flowers and pods of 12 pigeonpea genotypes indicated a positive and significant correlation between pupal weight and damage (0.60), pupal period and damage (0.58). Similarly positive correlation was observed between larval weight and damage (0.43) which indicates that the pod damage increases because increase in larval feeding which results in increase of larval weight (Table 22). Principal component analysis of 12 pigeonpea genotypes based on biological effects of leaf, H,armigera revealed that ICPL 871 19, T21, ICPL 187-1, flower and pods towards ICPL 84060, ICP 7203-1, ICPL 98008, ICPL 332 are resistant genotypes, ICP 7035, ICPL 88039 are susceptible genotypes; ICPL 87091, ICPL 87, ICPL 98001 are moderately resistant genotypes (Fig. 10).

Standardisation of artificial diet impregnated with lyophilized 4.2.2.3

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powder, and ranged between 26.67 to 60% in ICPL 332 and 16.67 to 28.33% in case of ICPL 87. There were not significant differences in larval mortality with the increase in the amount of leaf powder per 10 to 20 mg per 75ml of artificial diet, Pupal weights ranged from 296.7 to 333.lmg in case of ICPL 332 and 297.6 to

319.3 mg in case of ICPL 87 as compared to 313.7 mg in case of standard artificial diet. There was a significant prolongation of larval period when lyophilised leaf powder was added into the artificial diet and such an increase was greater for resistant cultivar ICPL 332 as compared to that of ICPL 87. Differences in the pupal period were large between the larvae reared on standard artificial diet and those reared on diets containing lyophilised leaf powder of ICPL 332 and ICPL 87. Per cent pupation was 40 to 63.3 in diets with ICPL 332 leaf powder and 56.67 to 66.67% in diet with ICPL 87 leaf powder. Similarly, the adult emergence ranged from 20 to 53.33% and 43.3 to 56.67% in ICPL 332 and ICPL 87 respectively, as compared to 60.00% in the standard artificial diet. Thus impregnation of lyophilised leaf powder resulted in significant adverse effects on larval survival, larval weight, larval period and per cent pupation and adult emergence. The differences in these parameters between the resistant and susceptible cultivars were maximum when 15

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Signirrcantly dmerent at 5% probability.

Flg 10: Principal component mnlysic of 12 plgranpea genotype#baaed on biologknl effects of leaves, flowen and pods towards H,amigera technique can be used to measure the antibiosis component of resistance to H.armigera in pigeonpea (Table 23 and Fig. 1I).

4.2.2.4 Standardisation of artificial diet impregnated with lyophilised pod powder of pigeonpea

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powder, and ranged between 15 to 33.30% in ICPL 332 and 8.83 to 13.33 % in case of ICPL 87. However, there was no significant difference in larval mortality with the increase in the amount of pod powder of ICPL 87 from 10 to 20 g in artificial diet, pupal weights ranged from 159 to 284.20 rng in case of ICPL 332 and 191.9 to

293.20 mg in case of ICPL 87 as compared to 276.40 mg in case of standard artificial diet. Highest pupation percentage (63.33) and highest adult emergence (53.30) was observed at 5 g concentration in case of ICPL 332. Highest pupation percentage (73.33) was observed at 5 g concentration in case of ICPL 87. Highest adult emergence (53.33) was observed at 5 g concentration in case of ICPL 87 (Table 24 and Fig.12). The differences in these parameters between the resistant and susceptible cultivars were maximum when IS to 20 g leaf powder was

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Growth and survival of H,armigera on lyophilized leaf powder 4.2.2.5 impregnated in artificial diet of different pigeonpea genotypes

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lyophilized leaf powder of 12 pigeonpea genotypes differed significantly. Among the long-duration genotypes lowest larval weight was recorded in larvae reared on ICP 7035 (1 1.50 rng). The larvae reared on artificial diet containing leaf powder of

- I C~ I V)

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I ICPL 871 19 (14.84 mg), and ICPL 332 (41.53 mg). Lowest pupal weight was recorded in larvae reared on ICPL 84060 (245.9 mg), followed by ICPL 871 19 (249.5 mg); and ICPL 332 (3 1 Img). Longest larval period was recorded in larvae reared on ICPL 332 (30.84 days), followed by those reared on ICPL 84060 (29.83 days). The pupal period was 14 days on ICPL 84060, followed by 12.70 days on ICPL 332. Lowest pupation was recorded on ICPL 332 (40.00%), followed by lCPL 84060 (33.33%). Similarly, lowest adult emergence was recorded on artificial diet containing lyophilized leaf powder of ICPL 84060 (20.00%) Among the short-duration genotypes highest larval weight was recorded in larvae reared on ICPL 98008 (44.32 mg). The larvae reared on artificial diet containing leaf powder of ICPL 187-1 (15.55 mg), ICPL 88039 (21.59 mg), ICPL 98001 (28.43 mg), weighed significantly lower than the larvae reared on artificial diet containing leaf powder of ICPL87 (5 1.87 mg). There were significant differences in the pupal weights of larvae reared on the artificial diet containing lyophilised leaf powder of different genotypes. Highest pupal weight was recorded on ICPL 88039 (332.90 mg), followed by ICPL 87091 (332.60 mg). Longest larval period was recorded in larvae reared on ICPL187-1 (27.67 days) and ICP 7203-1 (25.42 days). The pupal period was 13 days on ICPL 187-1 and 12 days on T 21 Larval survival was greater on diets containing lyophilized pod powder than the diets containing lyophilized leaf powder (Table 25).

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the lyophilized pod powder larval weights were greater (Table 26) in larvae reared Table 25: Growtb and development ofH. armigcm on artifieinl diet impregnated with 10 g of l y o p h i l i leaf powder of 12 pigeonpa genotypes (2000-2002)

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