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«D. ANITHA KUMARI THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE ACHARYA N.G RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, RAJENDRANAGAR IN PARTIAI FULFILLMENT OF ...»

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MECHANISMS OF RESISTANCE TO

Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) IN PIGEONPEA

[Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]

D. ANITHA KUMARI

THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE

ACHARYA N.G RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, RAJENDRANAGAR IN PARTIAI

FULFILLMENT OF

THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

IN THE FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE

DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE

ACHARYA N.G. RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY

RkTENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD - 500 030 January, 2005

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled "MECHANISMS O F RESISTANCE TO Helicoverpn arntigern (Hubner) IN PIGEONPEA ICajnnus crdnn (L.) Millsp.]" submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR O F PHILOSOPHY IN AGRlCULTURE of the Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad,is a record of the bonafide research work carried out by Mrs. D. ANITHA KUMARI under our guidance and supervision. The subject of the thesis has been approved by the Students Advisory Committee.

No part of the thesis has been submitted for any other degree or diploma.

The published part has been klly acknowledged. All the assistance and help received during the course of investigation have been duly acknowledged by the author of the thesis.

(D. JAGDISHWAR REDDY) Chairman of the Advisory Committee Thesis approved by the Student Advisov Committee.B~d : Dr. D. JAGDISHWAR REDDY Chairman

--Associate Professor Department of Entomology College of Agriculture Rajendranagar, Hyderabad Dr. H.C. SHARMA

Co-Chairman :

Principal Scientist (Ento ) ICRISAT, Patancheru Medak district Dr. T.NAGESHWAR RAO Member, I'rofessor and Head Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Agricultural College w-Aswaraopet, Khammam district : Dr. B.S. KULKARNI 'Member Professor & University Head Department of Mathematics and Statistics

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submitted is the result of original research work and is of sufficiently high standard to warrant its presentation to the examination. I also certify that the thesis or part there of has not been previously submitted by her for a degree of any university.

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Number of H.armigera eggs, larvae and pod damage in 12 pigeonpea genotypes in rainy season, second planting (2000-2001) Number of H.armigera eggs, larvae and pod damage in 12 pigeonpea genotypes in rainy season, fint planting (2001-2002)

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Agronomic performance of 12 pigeonpea genotypes in rainy season, first planting (2001-2002) Agronomic performance of 12 pigeonpea genotypes in rainy season, second planting (2001-2002)

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Estimates of stability of grain yield kg per hectare in 12 pigeonpea genotypes tested over fow seasons (2000-2002) Estimates of stability of 12 pigeonpea genotypes tested for resistance to H.armigera over four seasons (2000-2002) Stability of resistance based on percentage pod damage to H. armigera in 12 pigeonpea genotypes tested over four seasons (2000-2002) Relative ovipositional preference by the H. armigera females towards 12 pegionpea genotypes under no-choice cage conditions (2000-2002) Relative oviyositional preference by the H, armigera females towards 12 pegionpea genotypes under dualchoice cage conditions (2000-2002) Relative ovipositional preference by the H. armigera females towards 12 pegionpea genotypes under multichoice cage conditions (2000-2002) Growth and development of H,armigera on leaves of 12 pigeonpea genotypes (2000-2002) Growth and development of H.armigera on flowers and pods of 12 pigeonpea genotypes (2000-2002) Correlations between damage parameters of larvae reared on leaves, flowers and podo of 12 pigionpea genotypes (2000-2002) Standardization of artificial diet impregnated with lyophilized leaf powder of pigeonpea for assessing antibiosis to H,armigera (2000-2002)

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Relative feeding preference by the third instar larvae of 123 H.armigera towards leaves of 12 pigeonpea genotypes under no-choice conditions (2001-2002) Relative feeding preference by the third instar larvae of 125 H.armigera towards leaves of 12 pigeonpea genotypes under dual-choice conditions (2001-2002) Relative feeding preference by the third instar larvae of 126 H, armigera towards flowers of 12 pigeonpea genotypes under no-choice conditions (2001-2002) Relative feeding preference by the third instar larvae of 128 H. armigera towards flowers of 12 pigeonpea genotypes under dual-choice conditions (2001-2002) Relative feeding preference by the third instar larvae of 129 H.armigera towards flowers of 12 pigeonpea genotypes under multi-choice conditions (2001-2002) Relative feeding preference by the third instar larvae of 130 H. armigera towards pods of 8 pigeonpea genotypes under multi-choice conditions (2001-2002) Relative feeding preference by the third instar larvae of 131 H. armigera towards pods of 4 pigeonpea genotypes under multi-choice conditions (2001-2002) Relative feeding preference by the third instar larvae of 133 H. armigera towards pods of 12 pigeonpea genotypes washed with hexane in comparison to unwashed pods in dual-choice test under laboratory conditions (2001-2002) Relative feeding preference by the third instar larvae of 134 H. armigera towards pods of 12 pigeonpea genotypes washed with methanol in comparison to unwashed pods in dual-choice test under laboratory conditions (2001-2002)

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Damage caused by H. annigera in 12 pigeonpea 137 genotypes under protected and unprotected conditions (2001-2002) Yield components of 12 pigeonpea genotypes under 138 protected and unprotected wnditions (2001-2002) 48 Loss in yield due to H.armigera damage in 12 pigeonpea 140 genotypes under protected and unprotected conditions (2001-2002) Population of H. armigera on 12 pigeonpea genotypes 142 under unprotected wnditions (2001-2002) Population of H, armigera on 12 pigeonpea genotypes 143 under protected conditions (2001-2002)

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Cage used for studying relative oviposition preference of H. armigera moths on pigeonpea genotypes in laboratory (2001-2002) Relative oviposition preference of H. armigera moths 35 on pigeonpea genotypes under dual-choice conditions in laboratory (2001-2002) Relative oviposition preference of H. armigera moths towards 12 pigeonpea genotypes under multi-choice conditions in laboratory (2001-2002) Growth and development of H.armigera in artificial diet impregnated with lyophilised pigeonpea leaf powder (2000-2002) Relative susceptibility of H.armigera neonate larvae towards inflorescence of pigeonpea genotypes inserted in agar-agar under laboratory conditions (2001-2002)

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Relative preference of pigeonpea pods to H.armigera under no-choice cage conditions in laboratory (2000Relative preference of pigeonpea pods to H. armigera under dual-choice cage conditions in laboratory (2000

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With pleasure and humbleness, I place on record my profound sense o j gratitude, indebtedness and hearrfelt thanks to my Major Advisor Dr. D. JAGDZSHWAR REDDY, Associate Professor, Department of Entomology, College qf Agriculture, Rajendranagar, for his valuable suggestions, keen interest, able guidance and bountiful encouragement. His critical comments instilled in me the spirit of confidence, which led to the successful completion of thesis work.

There is no greater delight than to express my profound sense of gratitude to Dr. H. C SHARMA, Principal Scientist, ICRISR T and Co-Chairman of my Advisory Committeefor his initiative, benevolence, constant encouragement and ready help which enabled me to overcome several stumbling blocks during the period of my investigation and also in the preparation of this thesis. I express my sincere thanks to him for sparing his precious time in execution and preparation of the thesis.

It gives me immense pleasure to express my deep sense of gratitude to the other Committee Members Dr. T. NAGESHWAR RAO, Professor and Head, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding and Dr. B.S. KULKARNZ, Professor and Head, Department of Mathematics and Statistics for acting as members of Advisory Committee and for their keen interest and cooperation in presentation of this thesis.

I owe my respectable regards to Dr. G. V: Subbwatnam, Professor and Universily Head, Department of Entomology and other staff members of Department of Entomologyfor their guidance and help during the study.

I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Subhash Chandra, Principal Scientist, Mr. HmiKrishna and Ms. Rupa, Statistics Unit, ICRISA Tfor their help in tabulation, statistical scrutiny and analysis of the data.

My sincere thanks are due to Mr. Pampapathy, Mr. Madhusudan Venkateswar Rao, Mr. Raja Rao, Mr. Naroyan Chandra, Reddy, Mr.

Mr. Harindranath, Mr. Vittal Reddy, Mr. Venkatemarlu, Mrs. Vimala, Mrs. Ponnamma, Mr. hasad and Mr. Damodar and aN the stafl of ICRISA T for their cooperation and help.

I am thanwl to Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University for providingfinancial help to me in the form of stipend during the course of study and to the ICRISA Tfor providing experimentalfield and laboratoryfacilities.

I wish to express my affectionate gratitude to my friendr, Sreelatha, Sujana, Padmaja, Sreekanth, Gopalmamy, Sonali and Visalakshmifor their warm friendship, cooperation and encouragement.

Diction is not enough to express my unboundfil gratitude and regardr from my inner core of the heart to my parents Sri D. Prathap Reddy and Smt. D. Jayaprada, brother Anil and sister-in-law Smt. Shirisha for their immense help and encouragement throughout my career which enabled me to submit the present thesis.

I owe the entire credit of this achievement to my husband Shri A. Venkat Rukma Reddy for his help and encouragement shown and rendered during the period of my study. A1 the same time, I should remember forever the sacrifice made by my beloved daughter, Chi. Chikky.

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1, D. ANITHA KUMARI, hereby declare that the thesis entitled 66MECHANISMSOF RESISTANCE TO Helicovetpa armigera (Eubner) IN PIGEONPEA [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]" submitted to Acharya N.G.Ranga Agricultural University for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN AGRICULTURE is a result of original research work done by me. 1 also declare that the material contained in this thesis or part there of has not been published earlier in any manner.

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The present investigations on "MECHANISMS OF RESISTANCE TO Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) IN PIGEONPEA [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]" were undertaken under laboratory and field conditions at International Crops Research Institute For Semi Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patanchem, Andhra Pradesh, India during 2000 - 2001 and 2001-2002 cropping seasons.

Twelve germplasm accessions of pigeonpea were evaluated for stability of resistance to H. arrnigera under natural infestation. Stability of resistance was measured by regression analysis of the data for pod damage and grain yield.

Amongst the 12 genotypes tested, lowest pod damage was recorded in ICPL 187-1 (39%) followed by ICPL 332, ICPL 84060, and ICPL 88039 (47-53%). For ICPL 84060, the regression (b) value was I and residual mean square equal to zero.

However the pod damage percentage was not stable over the seasons.

Mechanisms of resistance (antixenosis for oviposition, antibiosis and tolerance) to H. armigera in 12 pigeonpea genotypes were studied in laboratory and field conditions. Oviposition studies under no-choice, dual-choice and multi-choice conditions revealed that among the medium to long duration genotypes ICPL 871 19 and ICP 7035 were preferred for oviposition compared with ICPL 84060 and ICPL 332 (resistance check). Among the short-duration genotypes, the susceptible check ICPL 87 was preferred most, followed by ICPL 87091, ICP 7203-1, lCPL 88039, and ICPL 98001.

Reduced larval and pupal weights, and prolonged larval and pupal development was recorded on artificial diet impregnated with lyophilised leaves and pods of ICPL 332, ICPL 84060, ICP 7035, ICPL 187-1,ICPL 88039 and ICP 7203-1 as compared to the susceptible genotypes ICPL 87 and ICPL 87091 indicating the presence of antibiosis component of resistance to H,armigera in these genotypes.

Five morphologically distinct trichomes: Type A, B, C, D and E were identified on pods and calyxes of the 12 pigeonpea genotypes studied. Type A and B trichomes were present in greater density in flowers and pods. In case of pods, Type D trichomes were present in greater numbers compared to Type A. High density of nonglandular trichomes (Type A and Type B) might contribute to the larval mortality in the resistant genotypes (ICPL 84060, ICPL 871 19, ICPL 88039, ICP ICPL 187-1 and T 21).

7203-1, The pod surface extracts of ICPL 87 and lCPL 332 stimulated feeding by the third, fourth and fifth instar larvae of H. armigera when presented at pod surface equivalents. The attractions of H. armigera larvae to ICPL 87 and ICPL 332 plant extracts appears to result from chemical compounds present in the extracts.

Nutritionally inlportant constituents of a host plant play a significant role in the feeding behaviour of phytophagous insects. The levels of Potassium and Phosphorus were low in resistant genotypes such as ICPL 332,ICPL 84060,ICP 7035 and JCPL 187-1,but high in susceptible check lCPL 87.Higher protein content was observed in resistant geneotypes ICPL 332, ICP 7035 and ICPL 84060 as compared to susceptible check lCPL 87.

The loss in grain yield due to H. armigera in 12 pigeonpea genotypes under protected and unprotected field conditions indicated the presence of tolerance mechanism of resistance in pigeonpea genotypes. Reduction in grain yield was lowest in the resistant check ICPL 332,followed by ICPL 84060,ICPL 87 and lCPL 87119 indicating tolerance to pod borer damage in these genotypes.

I Chapter

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